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Vertebrate segmentation has been proposed as an evolutionary inheritance either from some metameric protostome or from a more closely related deuterostome. To address this question, we studied the developmental expression of AmphiEn, the engrailed gene of amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates. In neurula embryos of(More)
The dynamic expression patterns of the single amphioxus Distal-less homolog (AmphiDll) during development are consistent with successive roles of this gene in global regionalization of the ectoderm, establishment of the dorsoventral axis, specification of migratory epidermal cells early in neurulation and the specification of forebrain. Such a multiplicity(More)
The marine spongeTheonella swinhoei (lithistid Family Theonellidae, Order Astrophorida) has yielded many important, bioactive natural products, most of which share structural features with bacterial natural products. The presence of microbial symbionts inT. swinhoei has been reported, and it was originally suggested that the cytotoxic macrolide swinholide A(More)
Amphioxus probably has only a single gene (AmphiPax3/7) in the Pax3/7 subfamily. Like its vertebrate homologs (Pax3 and Pax7), amphioxus AmphiPax3/7 is probably involved in specifying the axial musculature and muscularized notochord. During nervous system development, AmphiPax3/7 is first expressed in bilateral anteroposterior stripes along the edges of the(More)
Recent studies of protochordates (ascidian tunicates and amphioxus) have given insights into possible ancestors of 2 of the characteristic features of the vertebrate head: neural crest and placodes. The neural crest probably evolved from cells on either side of the neural plate-epidermis boundary in a protochordate ancestral to the vertebrates. In(More)
The organizer of the vertebrate gastrula is an important signalling centre that induces and patterns dorsal axial structures. Although a topic of long-standing interest, the evolutionary origin of the organizer remains unclear. Here we show that the gastrula of the cephalochordate amphioxus expresses dorsal/ventral (D/V) patterning genes (for example, bone(More)
Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally(More)
Cephalochordates (amphioxus), the closest living invertebrate relatives of the vertebrates, are key to understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms during the invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition. However, a major impediment to amphioxus as a model organism for developmental biology has been the inability to introduce transgenes or other(More)
Class I paired box genes are widely distributed through the animal phyla but only fruitfly Pox meso and vertebrate Pax-1 and Pax-9 have been adequately characterized. These vertebrate genes have several developmental functions, but their role in patterning the axial skeleton has received the most attention. Because axial skeletons appear after the origin of(More)