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The anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) is a key component of the hippocampal system for episodic memory. The ANT consist of 3 subnuclei with distinct connectivity with the subicular cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and mammillary bodies. Via its connections with the anterior cingulate and orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, the ANT may also contribute to… (More)
Medically refractory epilepsy remains a major medical problem worldwide. Although some patients are eligible for surgical resection of seizure foci, a proportion of patients are ineligible for a variety of reasons. One such reason is that the foci reside in eloquent cortex of the brain and therefore resection would result in significant morbidity. This… (More)
Neurons contain different functional somatodendritic and axonal domains, each with a characteristic distribution of voltage-gated ion channels, synaptic inputs, and function. The dendritic tree of a cortical pyramidal neuron has 2 distinct domains, the basal and the apical dendrites, both containing dendritic spines; the different domains of the axon are… (More)
A 55-year-old man presented with seizures characterized by "tightening" of the right side and variable loss of awareness. EEG showed focal epileptogenic abnormalities over left and midline central regions. MRI showed left frontal focal cortical dysplasia (figure 1). He had multiple skin lesions (figure 2) and colonoscopy revealed gastrointestinal mucosal… (More)
We conducted a retrospective audit of the outcomes of patients 15 years of age and older from the greater Auckland region who had a diagnosis of encephalitis over a five-year period. Patients were identified via a database search of all patients who had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panel requested between 2005 and 2009.… (More)
A 59-year-old man had a 2-month history of nonfluctuating encephalopathy. He initially presented acutely with fevers, headaches, and word-finding difficulties. The sedimentation rate was elevated with a bland CSF and normal MRI head. Body CT showed diffuse pulmonary interstitial thickening with patchy opacification. Following treatment for pneumonia, there… (More)
It has been recently recognised that patients with ventral intraspinal fluid collections secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leaks can present with bibrachial amyotrophy or mimic Hirayama disease. Here we present two further patients that expand the clinical spectrum of this disorder to include association with myelomalacia and intracranial hypertension.