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We have created a transgenic mouse with a hypomorphic allele of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (Vmat2) gene by gene targeting. These mice (KA1) have profound changes in monoamine metabolism and function and survive into adulthood. Specifically, these animals express very low levels of VMAT2, an endogenous protein which sequesters monoamines(More)
BACKGROUND Neural conversion from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been demonstrated in a variety of systems including chemically defined suspension culture, not requiring extrinsic signals, as well as in an adherent culture method that involves dual SMAD inhibition using Noggin and SB431542 (an inhibitor of activin/nodal signaling). Previous studies(More)
A major challenge in neurobiology is to understand mechanisms underlying human neuronal diversification. Motor neurons (MNs) represent a diverse collection of neuronal subtypes, displaying differential vulnerability in different human neurodegenerative diseases. The ability to manipulate cell subtype diversification is critical to establish accurate,(More)
A systematic analysis of parthenogenetic (PG) cell fate within the central nervous system (CNS) was made throughout fetal development and neonatal and adult life. Chimeras were made between PG embryos carrying a ubiquitously expressed lacZ transgene and normal fertilized embryos. After detailed histological analysis, we find that the developmental potential(More)
Preclinical development of human cells for potential therapeutic application in neurodegenerative diseases requires that their long-term survival, stability and functional efficacy be studied in animal models of human disease. Here we describe a strategy for long-term immune protection of human fetal and stem cell-derived neural cells transplanted into the(More)
Recessive mutations at the mouse pirouette (pi) locus result in hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction due to neuroepithelial defects in the inner ear. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have identified mutations in the gene Grxcr1 (glutaredoxin cysteine-rich 1) in five independent allelic strains of pirouette mice. We also provide sequence data of(More)
The gene IGF2, which encodes a fetal insulin-like growth factor, is imprinted, so only one of two parental copies of the gene is expressed. The altered expression of IGF2 has been implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a human fetal overgrowth syndrome, which is characterized by overgrowth of several organs and an increased risk of developing childhood(More)
Embryonic development entails a well defined temporal and spatial programme of gene expression, which may be influenced by active chromosomal domains. These chromosomal domains can be detected using transgenes which integrate randomly throughout the genome, as their expression can be affected by chromosomal position. Position effects are probably exerted(More)
Directed differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells has enormous potential to derive a wide variety of defined cell populations of therapeutic value. To achieve this, it is necessary to use protocols that promote cell differentiation under defined culture conditions. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms of cell differentiation in vitro will allow the(More)