Nicholas C. Zachos

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BACKGROUND The cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, dynamic system that plays an important role in regulating mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. While several studies have been done to evaluate immunomodulatory profiles in murine IBD, they have been limited to a relatively small number of cytokines that do not take(More)
The sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE) gene family plays an integral role in neutral sodium absorption in the mammalian intestine. The NHE gene family is comprised of nine members that are categorized by cellular localization (i.e., plasma membrane or intracellular). In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of multiple species, there are resident plasma membrane(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by life-threatening diarrhea in infancy, immunodeficiency, liver disease, trichorrhexis nodosa, facial dysmorphism, hypopigmentation, and cardiac defects. We attempted to characterize the phenotype and elucidate the molecular basis of THES. METHODS(More)
The intestinal and renal proximal tubule brush border (BB) Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 binds to members of the NHERF (Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor) family. These are four proteins (current most used names include NHERF1, NHERF2, PDZK1 and IKEPP) which are related to each other, are present in locations in or close to the BB, and scaffold a variable series(More)
Identification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate "indefinite" ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed "mini-intestines." Primary cultures developed from isolated intestinal crypts or stem(More)
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a(More)
Although the intracellular Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger Clc-5 is expressed in apical intestinal endocytic compartments, its pathophysiological role in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. In light of recent findings that CLC-5 is downregulated in active ulcerative colitis (UC), we tested the hypothesis that loss of CLC-5 modulates the immune response, thereby(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most common symptoms among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is diarrhea, which is thought to be contributed by changes in electrolyte transport associated with intestinal inflammation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that intestinal Na(+)-related transporters/channels and their regulatory proteins may be(More)
The small intestinal BB Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHE3 accounts for the majority of intestinal sodium and water absorption. It is highly regulated with both postprandial inhibition and stimulation sequentially occurring. Phosphatidylinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) and phosphatidylinositide 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P(3)) binding is involved with(More)
The multi-PDZ domain containing protein Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) binds to Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) and is associated with the brush border (BB) membrane of murine kidney and small intestine. Although studies in BB isolated from kidney cortex of wild type and NHERF1(-/-) mice have shown that NHERF1 is necessary for cAMP(More)