Nicholas Billinton

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Genotoxicity can be assessed by monitoring expression of a GADD45a-GFP reporter in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. A flow cytometric method has been developed to effectively distinguish GFP fluorescence from coloured and fluorescent test samples as well from the S9 liver extracts used to generate metabolites from pro-genotoxins. The method includes(More)
The GADD45a-GFP (GreenScreen HC) reporter assay detects genotoxic damage in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line and gives positive results for all classes of genotoxin, including mutagens, aneugens and clastogens. In this study, a collection of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals were tested in the assay. Compounds in the collection represent a broad range of(More)
DNA damage checkpoints regulate a number of physiological responses after DNA damage. The transcriptional level of many genes is specifically induced in response to genotoxic stress in a checkpoint-dependent manner. The regulation of DNA damage-induced transcription of RAD54 and RNR2 by RAD9, DDC1, DUN1, CRT1 and MBP1 was investigated in Saccharomyces(More)
Positive genetic toxicity data suggest carcinogenic hazard, and this can stop a candidate pharmaceutical reaching the clinic. However, during the last decade, it has become clear that many non-carcinogens produce misleading positive results in one or other of the regulatory genotoxicity assays. These doubtful conclusions cost a lot of time and money, as(More)
Exposure to genotoxic carcinogens leads to increased expression of the GADD45a gene in mammalian cells. This signature of genotoxic hazard has previously been exploited in the GreenScreen HC assay, in which GADD45a expression is linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line. This article describes the(More)
Sixteen coded compounds were blind-tested at 4 laboratories using the recently described GADD45a-GFP genotoxicity assay. The compounds were chosen to include non-genotoxic compounds as well as weak and strong genotoxins. None of the compounds required metabolic activation in order to exhibit genotoxic effects. The participating laboratories included 2(More)
An unconventional use for the polarization optics, associated with a variety of commercially available fluorescence microplate readers, is reported. This novel application has allowed the discrimination of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in genetically modified yeast cells from interfering autofluorescent species. The method exploits the(More)
Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of(More)
A new protocol has recently been developed and validated for the GreenScreen HC GADD45a-GFP genotoxicity reporter assay, enabling the incorporation of an S9 metabolic activation system into the assay. The S9 protocol employs flow-cytometric methodology for the detection of both reporter GFP fluorescence and propidium iodide fluorescence for the estimation(More)