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Policy-makers and managers have always used a wide range of sources of evidence in making decisions about policy and the organization of services. However, they are under increasing pressure to adopt a more systematic approach to the utilization of the complex evidence base. Decision-makers must address complicated questions about the nature and(More)
Contrary to popular perception, qualitative research can produce vast amounts of data. These may include verbatim notes or transcribed recordings of interviews or focus groups, jotted notes and more detailed " field-notes " of observational research, a diary or chronological account, and the researcher's reflective notes made during the research. These data(More)
Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can(More)
BACKGROUND Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the empirical evidence linking nursing resources to patient outcomes in intensive care settings as a framework for future research in this area. BACKGROUND Concerns about patient safety and the quality of care are driving research on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of health care interventions, including the deployment of human(More)