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Although organelle movement in higher plants is predominantly actin-based, potential roles for the 17 predicted Arabidopsis myosins in motility are only just emerging. It is shown here that two Arabidopsis myosins from class XI, XIE, and XIK, are involved in Golgi, peroxisome, and mitochondrial movement. Expression of dominant negative forms of the myosin(More)
Temperatures obtained from early Cassini infrared observations of Titan show a stratopause at an altitude of 310 kilometers (and 186 kelvin at 15 degrees S). Stratospheric temperatures are coldest in the winter northern hemisphere, with zonal winds reaching 160 meters per second. The concentrations of several stratospheric organic compounds are enhanced at(More)
Saturn's poles exhibit an unexpected symmetry in hot, cyclonic polar vortices, despite huge seasonal differences in solar flux. The cores of both vortices are depleted in phosphine gas, probably resulting from subsidence of air into the troposphere. The warm cores are present throughout the upper troposphere and stratosphere at both poles. The thermal(More)
Mid-infrared limb spectra in the range 600–1400 cm −1 taken with the Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board the Cassini spacecraft were used to determine vertical profiles of HCN, HC 3 N, C 2 H 2 , and temperature in Titan's atmosphere. Both high (0.5 cm −1) and low (13.5 cm −1) spectral resolution data were used. The 0.5 cm −1 data gave profiles(More)
The Open University's repository of research publications and other research outputs Structure and dynamics of the Martian lower and middle atmosphere as observed by the Mars Climate Sounder: Seasonal variations in zonal mean temperature, dust and water ice aerosols Journal Article (2010). Structure and dynamics of the Martian lower and middle atmosphere as(More)
Titan's diverse inventory of photochemically produced gases can be used as tracers to probe atmospheric circulation. Since the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens mission in July 2004 it has been possible to map the seasonal and spatial variations of these compounds in great detail. Here, we use 3.5 years of data measured by the Cassini Composite InfraRed(More)
Stratospheric temperatures on Saturn imply a strong decay of the equatorial winds with altitude. If the decrease in winds reported from recent Hubble Space Telescope images is not a temporal change, then the features tracked must have been at least 130 kilometers higher than in earlier studies. Saturn's south polar stratosphere is warmer than predicted from(More)
Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is suited to monitoring ground deformation on the scale of volcanic arcs, providing insight into the eruptive cycle over both long and short time periods. However, these measurements are often contaminated with atmospheric artefacts caused by changes in the refractivity of the atmosphere. Here, we(More)