Nicholas A Bowman

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Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices(More)
When the Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger lawsuits were filed, the University of Michigan needed to provide solid evidence for the educational benefits of diversity, because this was (and still is) a key legal rationale for considering race in college admissions (Chang, 2002a). 1 Since that time, scholarly research on the student outcomes of(More)
The contact hypothesis asserts that intergroup attitudes can be improved when groups have opportunities to interact with each other. Recent research extending the contact hypothesis suggests that contact with a primary outgroup can decrease bias toward outgroups not directly involved in the interaction, which is known as the secondary transfer effect (STE).(More)
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