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Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus family form highly resistant spores, which in the case of the pathogen B. anthracis act as the agents of infection. The outermost layer, the exosporium, enveloping spores of the B. cereus family as well as a number of Clostridia, plays roles in spore adhesion, dissemination, targeting, and germination control. We have(More)
The physical properties of semicrystalline polymers depend on the organisation of chains within the crystal and amorphous regions, on the interface between the two, and on the location and nature of defects. Here, torsional tapping atomic force microscopy has been used to image crystalline lamellae and the crystal-amorphous-region interface at the(More)
Torsional oscillation of atomic force microscope cantilevers has been shown to offer increased optical lever sensitivity, quality factor, resonant frequency, and stiffness as compared to flexural oscillation. In this letter, T-shaped cantilevers are oscillated torsionally to give a tapping motion at the tip. This gives many of the advantages of small(More)
The nanoscale mechanical properties of live Staphylococcus aureus cells during different phases of growth were studied by atomic force microscopy. Indentation to different depths provided access to both local cell wall mechanical properties and whole-cell properties, including a component related to cell turgor pressure. Local cell wall properties were(More)
A comprehensive scanning probe microscopy study has been carried out to characterise 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI)-melamine hydrogen-bonded networks deposited on Au(111)-surfaces. Both scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy were utilized. Such complementary analysis revealed a multilayered structure of the networks on the(More)
Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or(More)
Clostridium sporogenes is a non-pathogenic close relative and surrogate for Group I (proteolytic) neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strains. The exosporium, the sac-like outermost layer of spores of these species, is likely to contribute to adhesion, dissemination, and virulence. A paracrystalline array, hairy nap, and several appendages were(More)
The function of bioenergetic membranes is strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of their constituent membrane proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to probe protein organization at high resolution, allowing individual proteins to be identified. However, previous AFM studies of biological membranes have typically required that curved(More)
We show that sequential protein deposition is possible by photodeprotection of films formed from a tetraethylene-glycol functionalized nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl-protected aminopropyltriethoxysilane (NPEOC-APTES). Exposure to near-UV irradiation removes the protein-resistant protecting group, and allows protein adsorption onto the resulting aminated surface.(More)
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