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Interferon-release assays (IGRAs) represent advances in tuberculosis immunology and evolutionary biology. IGRAs were designed to replace tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection because of their logistical advantages and enhanced specificity over TST. Although IGRAs and TST have been useful in epidemiologic studies, they(More)
The species identification of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is critical to the timely initiation of both appropriate antibiotic therapy and proper public health control measures. However, the current commercially available molecular assays identify mycobacteria only to the complex level and are unable to differentiate M. tuberculosis(More)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a worldwide health threat that is typically triggered by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the natural gut microbiota and allow this Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen to thrive. The increased incidence and severity of disease coupled with decreased response, high recurrence rates, and emergence of(More)
Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST(More)
The rapid identification of mycobacteria from culture is of primary importance for the administration of empirical antibiotic therapy and for the implementation of public health measures, yet there are few commercially available assays that can easily and accurately identify the mycobacteria in culture in a timely manner. Here we report on the development(More)
Adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis controls progressive bacterial growth and disease but does not eradicate infection. Among CD4+ T cells in the lungs of M. tuberculosis-infected mice, we observed that few produced IFN-γ without ex vivo restimulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that one mechanism whereby M. tuberculosis avoids elimination is by(More)
The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) producing acquired carbapenemases have created a global public health crisis. In the United States, CRE producing the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) are increasingly common and are endemic in some regions. Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing CRE have recently been reported(More)
Despite the advantages of providing an early presumptive diagnosis, fungal classification by histopathology can be difficult and may lead to diagnostic error. To assess the accuracy of histologic diagnosis of fungal infections vs culture ("gold standard"), we performed a 10-year retrospective review at our institution. Of the 47 of 338 positive mold and(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) are leading fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, in many clinical situations. Relevant to this, their interface and co-existence has been studied. In some experiments in vitro, Pa products have been defined that are inhibitory to Af. In some clinical situations, both can be biofilm(More)
RATIONALE Current tools available to study the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis do not provide information about the directionality and sequence of transmission for tuberculosis cases occurring over a short period of time, such as during an outbreak. Recently, whole genome sequencing has been used to study molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium(More)