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We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behavior in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillates in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments,(More)
We report an unexpected sharp peak in the temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance of the reentrant integer quantum Hall states in the second Landau level. This peak defines the onset temperature of these states. We find that in different spin branches the onset temperatures of the reentrant states scale with the Coulomb energy. This scaling provides(More)
We report quantitative measurements of the impact of alloy disorder on the ν = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state. Alloy disorder is controlled by the aluminum content x in the Al(x)Ga(1-x)As channel of a quantum well. We find that the ν = 5/2 state is suppressed with alloy scattering. To our surprise, in samples with alloy disorder the ν = 5/2 state appears(More)
We report drastically different onset temperatures of the reentrant integer quantum Hall states in the second and third Landau levels. This finding is in quantitative disagreement with the Hartree-Fock theory of the bubble phases which is thought to describe these reentrant states. Our results indicate that the association of the reentrant states in the(More)
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