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Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas(More)
A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of(More)
Using multiple pest-mortality sources is a basic tenet of IPM, but they may not always be compatible. To that end, we examined compatibility of parasitism and nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) infected. Specifically, we examined the effects of prior oviposition experience by Microplitis pallidipes on its ability to distinguish NPV-infected from healthy larvae of(More)
The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been(More)
We determined the physiological effects of joint and separate nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) infection and parasitism by the endoparasitoid Microplitis pallidipes Szepligeti on biochemical events in the noctuid Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). The results indicated that in parasitized larvae, compared to healthy larvae, total protein concentration in host hemolymph(More)
While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological(More)
We determined the effects of parasitism by the endoparasitoid Microplitis pallidipes Szepligeti and/or nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) infection on hemocyte apoptosis of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) larvae. Compared to healthy (control) larvae, larvae that were parasitized, virus-infected, or both all showed a significant increase in hemocyte apoptosis during 48-h(More)
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