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Mutation of RPE65 can cause severe blindness from birth or early childhood, and RPE65 protein is associated with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) vitamin A metabolism. Here, we show that Rpe65-deficient mice exhibit changes in retinal physiology and biochemistry. Outer segment discs of rod photoreceptors in Rpe65-/- mice are disorganized compared with those(More)
NMDA receptor-mediated calcium transients play a critical role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and excitotoxicity. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes of NR1A combined with NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and/or NR2D subunits. The NR2 subunits determine a variety of electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the NMDA receptor complex. In this(More)
Zinc has been shown to be present in synaptic vesicles of a subset of glutamatergic boutons and is believed to be core-leased with glutamate at these synapses. A variety of studies have suggested that zinc might play a role in modulation of excitatory transmission, as well as excitotoxicity, by inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate(More)
The sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome provides a unique opportunity to investigate the function and evolution of neural genes. The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization. Orthologues(More)
The angiogenic inducers cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are structurally related, extracellular matrix-associated heparin-binding proteins. Both can stimulate chemotaxis and promote proliferation in endothelial cells and fibroblasts in culture and induce neovascularization in vivo. Encoded by inducible(More)
Evidence suggests that NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity plays a role in the selective neurodegeneration underlying Huntington's disease (HD). The gene mutation that causes HD encodes an expanded polyglutamine tract of >35 in huntingtin, a protein of unknown function. Both huntingtin and NMDA receptors interact with cytoskeletal proteins, and, for NMDA(More)
The angiogenic inducer Cyr61 is an extracellular matrix-associated heparin-binding protein that can mediate cell adhesion, stimulate cell migration, and enhance growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells in culture. In vivo, Cyr61 induces neovascularization and promotes tumor growth. Cyr61 is a prototypic member of a(More)
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes, berries, and peanuts, is one of the most promising agents for cancer prevention. Our previous study showed that the antitumor activity of resveratrol occurs through p53-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we have elucidated the potential signaling components underlying resveratrol-induced p53 activation and(More)
Evidence suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have a relatively high affinity for agonist compared with non-NMDA receptors. Dose-response curves constructed with sustained agonist application suggest that the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) for peak glutamate-evoked current at NMDARs is 1 to 10 microM, whereas that of(More)
IL-18 induces IFN-gamma and NK cell cytotoxicity, making it a logical target for viral antagonism of host defense. We demonstrate that the ectromelia poxvirus p13 protein, bearing homology to the mammalian IL-18 binding protein, binds IL-18, and inhibits its activity in vitro. Binding of IL-18 to the viral p13 protein was compared with binding to the(More)