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Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) occur in 5-10% of patients with solid tumors and are associated with a dismal prognosis. We describe LM from lung adenocarcinoma harboring a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that confers sensitivity to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) erlotinib and gefitinib. The CSF concentration of(More)
Linear mixed-effects models are frequently used to analyze repeated measures data, because they model flexibly the within-subject correlation often present in this type of data. The most popular linear mixed-effects model for a continuous response assumes normal distributions for the random effects and the within-subject errors, making it sensitive to(More)
Engineered bone tissue is thought to be the ideal alternative for bone grafts in the treatment of related bone diseases. BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic factors, and enhancement of BMP9-induced osteogenesis will greatly accelerate the development of bone tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of insulin-like growth(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types(More)
of the Thesis The music industry has undergone enormous change since the introduction of of Napster in 1999. In 1999, 100% of industry revenue was from physical sales; in 2014, United States music industry revenue was 32% physical, 37% digital down-loads, 27% streaming, and 4% other minor categories. In this thesis, I present the first models in the music(More)
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