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We characterized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) isolated from two HIV-1-infected CCR5delta32 homozygotes. Envs from both subjects used CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry into transfected cells. Most R5X4 Envs were lymphocyte-tropic and used CXCR4 exclusively for entry into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), but a(More)
Type 1 (T1) cytokine responses are required for the clearance of hepatitis C virus by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but can promote liver damage. Interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) can be expected to promote T1 cytokine responses, so treatment outcome may depend on the T1/T2 cytokine environment and levels of immune activation at baseline. This model was tested by(More)
Hepatotoxicity was investigated, using plasma collected before and during treatment, in 16 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients who responded to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), during a retrospective longitudinal study. Eleven patients experienced hepatotoxicity (i.e., a >3-fold increase in alanine(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the relative frequencies of different mechanisms of viral escape. DESIGN A population-based approach to examine the distribution of HIV polymorphism associated with diverse population human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) at sites within and flanking CD8 T-cell epitopes as a correlate of likely mechanisms of viral escape. METHODS Sequence(More)
The enzyme linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay is a fundamental tool in cellular immunology, providing both quantitative and qualitative information on cellular cytokine responses to defined antigens. It enables the comprehensive screening of patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells to reveal the antigenic restriction of T-cell responses and is an(More)
Extended assessments of memory T-cell responses in HIV patients who have a satisfactory virological response to combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) have been limited by availability of longitudinal samples and of antigens to which most individuals (including HIV-negative controls) have been exposed. Studies of cytomegalovirus (CMV) show that(More)
Strong statistical associations between polymorphisms in HIV-1 population sequences and carriage of HLA class I alleles have been widely used to identify possible sites of CD8 T cell immune selection in vivo. However, there have been few attempts to prospectively and systematically test these genetic hypotheses arising from population-based studies at a(More)
HIV-1 mutations, which reduce or abolish CTL responses against virus-infected cells, are frequently selected in acute and chronic HIV infection. Among population HIV-1 sequences, immune selection is evident as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele-associated substitutions of amino acids within or near CD8 T-cell epitopes. In these cases, the non-adapted(More)
Here we address whether CCR5 or CXCR4 tropism of the predominant viral strain detected before or on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) explains why some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who begin ART with advanced HIV disease retain low interferon (IFN)-gamma responses, despite recovery of CD4(+) T cell counts. Tropism was(More)