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A functional status measure was developed by adding 5 items to the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-S), and compared to anthropometric measures of spinal mobility. Forty-four patients with spondylitis were evaluated by the HAQ-S and measures of spine flexibility (finger-to-floor, Smythe test, neck rotation, and chest expansion). Modification of the HAQ(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Walking and cycling have shown beneficial effects on population risk of all-cause mortality (ACM). This paper aims to review the evidence and quantify these effects, adjusted for other physical activity (PA). DATA SOURCES We conducted a systematic review to identify relevant studies. Searches were conducted in November 2013 using(More)
BACKGROUND Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder and the evidence for efficacy of most drug therapies in the treatment of IBS is weak. A popular alternative is probiotics, which have been used in several conditions. including IBS. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements.The aim of this systematic review and(More)
BACKGROUND Handheld computers and mobile devices provide instant access to vast amounts and types of useful information for health care professionals. Their reduced size and increased processing speed has led to rapid adoption in health care. Thus, it is important to identify whether handheld computers are actually effective in clinical practice. (More)
OBJECTIVE Metformin is the first-line oral medication recommended for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We reviewed the literature to quantify the effect of metformin treatment on glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels in all types of diabetes and examine the impact of differing doses on glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Many healthcare professionals use smartphones and tablets to inform patient care. Contemporary research suggests that handheld computers may support aspects of clinical diagnosis and management. This systematic review was designed to synthesise high quality evidence to answer the question; Does healthcare professionals' use of handheld computers(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment have been shown to reduce bias in human studies. Authors from the Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) collaboration recently found that these features protect against bias in animal stroke studies.(More)
BACKGROUND Testing for carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood is a recommended part of follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer following primary curative treatment. There is substantial clinical variation in the cut-off level applied to trigger further investigation. OBJECTIVES To determine the diagnostic performance of different blood(More)
BACKGROUND To date, there has been no systematic examination of the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) control measurements and the prediction of adverse events in patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation. METHODS AND RESULTS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane through January 2008 for studies of atrial(More)