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BACKGROUND Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure(More)
Dendritic cell-derived indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses naive T cell proliferation and induces their apoptosis by catalyzing tryptophan, and hence is essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. However, it is not known whether memory T cells are subject to the regulation by IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism, as memory T cells respond(More)
Recent convincing data have shown that naturally occurring CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells are also regulatory T cells. Paradoxically, CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells have been well described as memory T cells. Given their critical role in tolerance versus long-term immunity, it is important to reconcile this profound dichotomy. In this study, we reported that CD8(+)CD122(+)(More)
BACKGROUND Immune responses are tempered in immunologically privileged sites including the testis. Previous studies have shown that islet transplantation in the testis significantly prolongs islet allograft survival. However, mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege and intratesticular allograft survival remain unclear. METHODS Allogeneic murine(More)
Memory T cells are resistant to the conventional costimulatory blockade and therefore impede tolerance induction. However, their migratory, survival, and functional requirements for chemokines are not well understood. We herein examine the role for MCP-1 or CCL2 in the generation, migration, and function of memory CD8+ T cells. We found that overall(More)
Memory T cells respond faster and more vigorously than their naive counterparts and are critical for adaptive immunity. However, it is unknown whether and how memory T cells react in the face of irrelevant Ags. It is generally accepted that bystander memory T cells are neutral in immune responsiveness. In this study, we present the first evidence that(More)
BACKGROUND Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are important for alloimmune responses as well as immune tolerance. Previous studies have shown that presentation of donor MHC antigens by donor-specific transfusion prior to or upon transplantation promotes transplant tolerance induced by other agents. However, it is unclear whether presentation of(More)
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