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Recent convincing data have shown that naturally occurring CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells are also regulatory T cells. Paradoxically, CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells have been well described as memory T cells. Given their critical role in tolerance versus long-term immunity, it is important to reconcile this profound dichotomy. In this study, we reported that CD8(+)CD122(+)(More)
Dendritic cell-derived indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses naive T cell proliferation and induces their apoptosis by catalyzing tryptophan, and hence is essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. However, it is not known whether memory T cells are subject to the regulation by IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism, as memory T cells respond(More)
Memory T cells respond faster and more vigorously than their naive counterparts and are critical for adaptive immunity. However, it is unknown whether and how memory T cells react in the face of irrelevant Ags. It is generally accepted that bystander memory T cells are neutral in immune responsiveness. In this study, we present the first evidence that(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure(More)
BACKGROUND Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are important for alloimmune responses as well as immune tolerance. Previous studies have shown that presentation of donor MHC antigens by donor-specific transfusion prior to or upon transplantation promotes transplant tolerance induced by other agents. However, it is unclear whether presentation of(More)
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