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Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin beta 1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to genetically transform sorghum. Immature embryos of a public (P898012) and a commercial line (PHI391) of sorghum were used as the target explants. The Agrobacterium strain used was LBA4404 carrying a 'Super-binary' vector with a bar gene as a selectable marker for herbicide resistance in the plant cells. A series of(More)
We have investigated how extracellular matrix (ECM) alters the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton (CSK). Mechanical stresses were applied to integrin receptors on the apical surfaces of adherent endothelial cells using RGD-coated ferromagnetic microbeads (5.5-microns diameter) in conjunction with a magnetic twisting device. Increasing the number of(More)
The objectives of this study were to compare approaches for evaluating the combined effects of chemical mixtures on the toxicity in field-collected sediments and to evaluate the ability of consensus-based probable effect concentrations (PECs) to predict toxicity in a freshwater database on both a national and regional geographic basis. A database was(More)
Better characterization of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients with primary infection has important implications for the development of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine because vaccine strategies should target viral isolates with the properties of transmitted viruses. In five HIV-1 seroconverters, the viral phenotype(More)
Alternative models of cell mechanics depict the living cell as a simple mechanical continuum, porous filament gel, tensed cortical membrane, or tensegrity network that maintains a stabilizing prestress through incorporation of discrete structural elements that bear compression. Real-time microscopic analysis of cells containing GFP-labeled microtubules and(More)
In addition to triggering the activation of B- or T-cell antigen receptors, the binding of a ligand to its receptor at the cell surface can sometimes determine the physiological outcome of interactions between antigen-presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes. The protein SLAM (also known as CDw150), which is present on the surface of B and T cells, forms such(More)
Tangier disease, a condition characterized by low levels of high density lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, is caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABC1. In cultured macrophages, ABC1 mRNA was induced in an additive fashion by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9CRA), suggesting induction by(More)
It has been shown previously that intermediate filament (IF) gels in vitro exhibit stiffening at high-applied stress, and it was suggested that this stiffening property of IFs might be important for maintaining cell integrity at large deformations (Janmey PA, Evtenever V, Traub P, and Schliwa M, J Cell Biol 113: 155-160, 1991). In this study, the(More)
A magnetic twisting stimulator was developed based on the previously published technique of magnetic twisting cytometry. Using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads, this device can apply mechanical stresses with varying amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and waveforms to specific cell surface receptors. Biochemical and biological responses of the cells to(More)