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The chromosomal region 10p13 has been linked to paucibacillary leprosy in two independent studies. The MRC1 gene, encoding the human mannose receptor (MR), is located in the 10p13 region and non-synonymous SNPs in exon 7 of the gene have been suggested as leprosy susceptibility factors. We determined that G396S is the only non-synonymous exon 7-encoded(More)
A genomewide association study in Chinese patients with leprosy detected association signals in 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to 6 loci, of which 4 are related to the NOD2 signaling pathway and are Crohn's disease susceptibility loci. Here, we studied these 16 SNPs as potential leprosy susceptibility factors in 474 Vietnamese leprosy(More)
Experimental evidence suggested the existence of unidentified leprosy susceptibility loci in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. To identify such genetic risk factors, a high-density association scan of a 1.9-mega-base (Mb) region in the HLA complex was performed. Among 682 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 59 were associated with leprosy (P(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Analyses of patient delay (i.e. time interval between onset of symptoms and first consultation of a health care provider) and health care delay (i.e. time interval between first consultation and start of treatment) can inform policies to improve access.(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019) has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN) susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet(More)
SETTING Six provinces in Vietnam where the DOTS strategy was introduced in 1989. OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of improved tuberculosis (TB) control on TB epidemiology in Vietnam. METHODS Data from the surveillance system in the period 1990-2003 were analysed to assess trends of notification rates and the mean ages of notified cases. Data from repeated(More)
This study aims to give information on the prenatal diagnostic (PND) services provided in three major regional PND centers in Vietnam. This cross-sectional study was conducted in early 2014. An inventory of services, human resources, facilities, and equipment and in-depth interviews were carried out. Three regional PND centers were set up between 2007 and(More)
This paper discusses the knowledge transfer process in offshore outsourcing. The focus is a case study of software offshore outsourcing from Japan to Vietnam. Initial results confirm that willingness to cooperate and good impressions facilitate the knowledge transfer process. In addition, communication barriers, cultural differences, lack of equivalence in(More)
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects an estimated 700,000 persons each year. Clinically, leprosy can be categorized as paucibacillary or multibacillary disease. These clinical forms develop in persons that are intrinsically susceptible to leprosy per se, that is, leprosy independent of its specific clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The Mitsuda reaction is a delayed granulomatous skin reaction elicited by intradermal injection of heat-killed M. leprae. Interestingly, results of the Mitsuda test are positive in the majority of individuals, even in areas not endemic for M. leprae. Like leprosy, the Mitsuda(More)