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Toll-like receptors (TLR) are critical mediators of the immune response to pathogens and human polymorphisms in this gene family regulate inflammatory pathways and are associated with susceptibility to infection. Lipopeptides are present in a wide variety of microbes and stimulate immune responses through TLR1/2 or TLR2/6 heterodimers. It is not currently(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare processes and outcomes of four public-private mix (PPM) projects on DOTS implementation for tuberculosis (TB) control in New Delhi, India; Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; Nairobi, Kenya; and Pune, India. METHODS Cross-project analysis of secondary data from separate project evaluations was used. Differences among PPM project sites in(More)
Isoniazid resistance is highly prevalent in Vietnam. We investigated the molecular and epidemiological characteristics and the association with first-line treatment outcomes of the main isoniazid resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in codon 315 of the katG and in the promoter region of the inhA gene. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with(More)
Using population-based data from rural Vietnam, we assessed tuberculosis (TB) transmission within and outside of households. Eighty-three percent of persons with recent household TB were infected by different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis than were their household members. This result argues against the effectiveness of active TB case finding among(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited evidence that the DOTS (directly observed therapy, short course) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control can contain the emergence and spread of drug resistance in the absence of second-line treatment. We compared drug-resistance levels between 1996 and 2001 in the south of Vietnam, an area with a well-functioning DOTS program. (More)
BACKGROUND In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. METHODS In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is an emerging pathogen that is frequently associated with drug resistance. This suggests that drug resistant Beijing strains have a relatively high transmission fitness compared to other drug-resistant strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS We studied the relative transmission(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have suggested that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype causes more severe clinical disease and higher treatment failure rates with standard regimens, possibly in association with an increased risk of acquiring drug resistance. We studied the effect of genotype on treatment failure in a rural area in Vietnam where multidrug(More)
In Vietnam the spread of HIV infection is thought to be limited. In 12 urban districts of Ho Chi Minh City representative samples of tuberculosis patients have undergone HIV testing since 1995. HIV prevalence increased steeply from 0.5% in 1995 to 4% in 2000, with a doubling time of approximately 21 months. This study highlights the need to intensify(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis is often lethal. Early antituberculosis treatment and adjunctive treatment with glucocorticoids improve survival, but nearly one third of patients with the condition still die. We hypothesized that intensified antituberculosis treatment would enhance the killing of intracerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms and(More)