Nevin S. Scrimshaw

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Economic history has contributed significantly to the formulation of economic theory.* Among the economists who have found history an important source for their ideas are Smith, Malthus, Marx, Marshall, Keynes, Hicks, Arrow, Friedman, Solow, and Becker. Failure to take account of history, as Simon Kuznets (1941) stressed, has often led to a misunderstanding(More)
Interactions between malnutrition and infection contribute directly to the health of individuals and communities. The relevance of this concept to the practice of clinical medicine, dentistry, and public health is supported by an imposing collection of evidence from the clinic, laboratory, and field. Malnutrition can interfere with any body mechanism that(More)
Infections, no matter how mild, have adverse effects on nutritional status. The significance of these effects depends on the previous nutritional status of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection, and the diet during the recovery period. Conversely, almost any nutrient deficiency, if sufficiently severe, will impair resistance to infection.(More)
1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal(More)
Nearly all expert groups on nutrient requirements have suggested that the nutritional effects of infection need to be taken into account, but specific instructions on how to do this have not been formulated. There is great uncertainty as to how individual requirements are affected or how disease prevalence might alter nutrient requirements for large(More)
BACKGROUND A project for universal salt iodation with potassium iodate and wheat flour fortification with a vitamin-mineral premix was implemented in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan between 2002 and 2007. OBJECTIVE To determine the potential effectiveness of the food fortification programs in improving the(More)
A 1983 conference organized by United Nations University proposed an international network of food data systems (INFOODS) to address the need for and limitations of food-composition databases. Concerns of INFOODS include the acquisition and interchange of quality data on the nutrient composition of foods; the development of standards and guidelines for the(More)