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Recently we demonstrated that human antibody fragments with binding activities against foreign antigens can be isolated from repertoires of rearranged V-genes derived from the mRNA of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from unimmunized humans. The heavy and light chain V-genes were shuffled at random and cloned for display as single-chain Fv (scFv)(More)
The RH blood group locus from RhD-positive donors is composed of two closely related genes, RHCE and RHD, encoding the Cc/Ee and D antigens, respectively. The major Rh antigen, D, is serologically defined as a mosaic of at least nine determinants (epD1 to epD9), and the lack of expression of some of these D epitopes at the surface of variant red blood cells(More)
The agglutination patterns have been established for the reaction between 29 monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the Rh antigen D and red cells of D categories IIIa, IIIc, IVa, IVb, Va, Vc, VI and VII, which are known to lack certain epitopes on the D polypeptide. Six different agglutination patterns were recognized and interpreted to indicate the(More)
Measurements have been made of the number of available sites on 10 examples of red cells in which the only abnormality appeared to be a quantitative reduction in the expression of D (weak D cells); these estimates were carried out using three monoclonal anti-D antibodies, Fog-1, Brad-3 and Los-2. The values varied with the monoclonal antibody that was used(More)
Both cDNA RHD sequences and reactivity with monoclonal anti-D have been reported in a number of partial D phenotypes, where parts (some epitopes) of the normal D antigen are missing, and anti-D of restricted specificity may be made in response to challenge with normal D positive blood. This paper analyses these reports together and proposes a model for the(More)
To date, there has been no systematic study of the process of affinity maturation of human antibodies. We therefore sequenced the variable region genes (V genes) of 14 human monoclonal antibodies specific for the erythrocyte Rh(D) alloantigen and determined the germline gene segments of origin and extent of somatic hypermutation. These data were correlated(More)
The mechanism of synergistic complement-mediated lysis of rat red cells was investigated using rat monoclonal antibodies against class I RT1Aa antigens. The increased lytic activity when using two antibodies simultaneously is due to the increase in the number of activated C1 molecules on the cell surface and this results from (a) an increase in the number(More)
It is a common observation that there is variability in the rate of activation of C1, the first component of complement, when bound to immune complexes. The cause of this variation has been investigated with experiments designed to assess separately the effect of antibody, antigen and C1 density. Using 125I-labeled C1 and a rat monoclonal antibody specific(More)