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The simplicity of programming the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated nuclease Cas9 to modify specific genomic loci suggests a new way to interrogate gene function on a genome-wide scale. We show that lentiviral delivery of a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) library targeting 18,080 genes with 64,751 unique(More)
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules that can be rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety(More)
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification of mRNA with potential roles in fine-tuning the RNA life cycle. Here, we identify a dense network of proteins interacting with METTL3, a component of the methyltransferase complex, and show that three of them (WTAP, METTL14, and KIAA1429) are required for methylation. Monitoring m6A levels upon WTAP(More)
correspondence several modifications, including removal of one of the nuclear localization signals, human-codon optimization of the remaining nuclear localization signal and P2A bicistronic linker sequences, and repositioning of the U6-driven sgRNA cassette (Fig. 1a). These changes resulted in an approximately tenfold increase in functional viral titer over(More)
Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limited(More)
Forward genetic screens are powerful tools for the discovery and functional annotation of genetic elements. Recently, the RNA-guided CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-associated Cas9 nuclease has been combined with genome-scale guide RNA libraries for unbiased, phenotypic screening. In this Review, we describe recent advances(More)
Genetic screens are powerful tools for identifying genes responsible for diverse phenotypes. Here we describe a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in tumor growth and metastasis. We mutagenized a non-metastatic mouse cancer cell line using a genome-scale library with 67,405 single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs). The mutant cell pool rapidly(More)
We present a new technique that uses a custom-built ink-jet printer to fabricate precise micropatterns of cell adhesion materials for neural cell culture. Other work in neural cell patterning has employed photolithography or "soft lithographic" techniques such as micro-stamping, but such approaches are limited by their use of an un-alterable master pattern(More)
Genome editing technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems have ushered in a new era of targeted DNA manipulation. The easy programmability of CRISPR using short oligonucleotides enables rapid synthesis of large-scale libraries for functional genetic screens. Here we present fundamental concepts and(More)