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Direct currents (DC) applied directly to central nervous system structures produce substantial and long-lasting effects in animal experiments. We tested the functional effects of very weak scalp DC (< 0.5 mA, 7 s) on the human motor cortex by assessing the changes in motor potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. We performed four(More)
We studied the performance of sequential arm movements in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease, nine patients with Huntington's disease and seven patients with arm dystonia. The results were compared with those from normal subjects. Subjects had to perform each movement of the sequence as fast as possible, stopping as briefly as possible between two(More)
In this pilot study we evaluated electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency changes induced by prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and investigated whether they depended on tDCS electrode montage. Eight healthy volunteers underwent tDCS for 15 min during EEG recording. They completed six tDCS sessions, 1 wk apart, testing left and(More)
Unlike conventional platform posturography, which analyses the sway in the projection of the body baricentre on a supporting plane, multisegmental posturography provides information about body segmental movements during stance, including those that keep the baricentre still. This paper presents a new technical approach to multisegmental posturography using(More)
Evoked potential studies have confirmed visual pathway impairment in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine is also known to be involved in retinal color vision mechanisms. In this study, pattern evoked potentials were recorded in 20 parkinsonian patients in "on" and "off" conditions to compare the sensitivity of black-and-white and color pattern stimuli. Evoked(More)
The muscle responses evoked by cortical and cervical stimulation in 11 patients with motor neuron disease were studied. The muscle potential in the abductor pollicis brevis, evoked by median nerve stimulation and the somatosensory potential evoked by wrist stimulation were also studied. In eight of 11 patients there was absence or increased central delay of(More)
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on focal epileptiform interictal EEG activity in a patient with fixation-off sensitivity and partial epilepsy. Real and sham rTMS were delivered over the vertex. Two trains of 500 stimuli per day were delivered at(More)
Blinking, a motor act consisting of a closing and an opening eyelid movement, can be performed voluntarily, spontaneously, and reflexly. In this study we investigated the kinematic features of voluntary, spontaneous, and reflex blinking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), OFF and ON dopaminergic treatment. Patients were asked to blink voluntarily as(More)
The relationship between sympathetic skin response (SSR) and cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CVTs) was investigated in 15 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 patients with clinical evidence of multiple system atrophy (MSA) with autonomic failure, and in 15 healthy control subjects. SSR was elicited by electrical stimulation of the(More)
The corneal reflex can be elicited in humans by electrical stimulation of the cornea. This method is harmless and allows precise quantification of the reflex response. In 18 patients with trigeminal lesions, the reflex was abolished or significantly altered on the diseased side in all cases. Measurement of the threshold is the most significant(More)