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BACKGROUND In four randomised trials, human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening for cervical cancer was compared with cytology-based cervical screening, and precursors of cancer were the endpoint in every trial. However, direct estimates are missing of the relative efficacy of HPV-based versus cytology-based screening for prevention of invasive cancer in(More)
European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening have been initiated in the Europe Against Cancer Programme. The first edition established the principles of organised population-based screening and stimulated numerous pilot projects. The second multidisciplinary edition was published in 2008 and comprises approximately 250 pages(More)
BACKGROUND A single flexible sigmoidoscopy at around the age of 60 years has been proposed as an effective strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on CRC incidence and mortality. A questionnaire to assess the eligibility and interest in(More)
A method of analysis is presented for estimating the magnitude of a treatment effect among compliers in a clinical trial which is asymptotically unbiased and respects the randomization. The approach is valid even when compliers have a different baseline risk than non-compliers. Adjustments for contamination (use of the treatment by individuals in the(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is known to be more sensitive, but less specific than cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We assessed the efficacy of cervical-cancer screening policies that are based on HPV testing. METHODS Between March, 2004, and December, 2004, in two separate recruitment phases, women aged(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognised as necessary for the development of cervical cancer. An age-stratified random sample of 1013 women, aged 25-70 years, participating in the organised cervical screening programme in Turin, Italy was tested for 36 HPV types using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The overall HPV(More)
BACKGROUND A single sigmoidoscopy examination at around age 60 years has been proposed as a cost-effective strategy to prevent colorectal cancer. A multicenter randomized controlled trial, the SCORE trial, is in progress in Italy to estimate the impact of this strategy on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality and the duration of the protective effect.(More)
BACKGROUND Although testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) has higher sensitivity and lower specificity than cytology alone for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), studies comparing conventional and liquid-based cytology have had conflicting results. METHODS In the first phase of a two-phase multicenter randomized controlled trial, women(More)
BACKGROUND In the first recruitment phase of a randomized trial of cervical cancer screening methods (New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening [NTCC] study), we compared screening with conventional cytology with screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with liquid-based cytology. HPV-positive women were directly referred to(More)
BACKGROUND Although there is general consensus concerning the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening, there is a lack of agreement about which routine screening strategy should be adopted. We compared the participation and detection rates achievable through different strategies of colorectal cancer screening. METHODS From November 1999 through June 2001(More)