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Astrocytes provide structural and metabolic support for neuronal networks, but direct evidence demonstrating their active role in complex behaviors is limited. Central respiratory chemosensitivity is an essential mechanism that, via regulation of breathing, maintains constant levels of blood and brain pH and partial pressure of CO2. We found that astrocytes(More)
Phox2b-expressing neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), located in the ventrolateral brainstem, are sensitive to changes in PCO(2)/pH, have excitatory projections to the central respiratory rhythm/pattern generator, and their activation enhances central respiratory drive. Using in vivo (conscious and anesthetized rats) and in situ (arterially(More)
The combination of optogenetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is referred to as opto-fMRI. Optogenetics utilises genetic engineering to introduce light sensitive actuator proteins into cells. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a specialist form of magnetic resonance imaging concerned with imaging changes in blood flow and oxygenation, linked to(More)
  • Robert T R Huckstepp, Rachid id Bihi, Robert Eason, K Michael Spyer, Nikolai Dicke, Klaus Willecke +3 others
  • 2010
Arterial PCO2, a major determinant of breathing, is detected by chemosensors located in the brainstem. These are important for maintaining physiological levels of PCO2 in the blood and brain, yet the mechanisms by which the brain senses CO(2) remain controversial. As ATP release at the ventral surface of the brainstem has been causally linked to the(More)
AIMS Innate mechanisms of inter-organ protection underlie the phenomenon of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RPc) in which episode(s) of ischaemia and reperfusion in tissues remote from the heart reduce myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The uncertainty surrounding the mechanism(s) underlying RPc centres on whether humoral factor(s) produced during(More)
Inorganic polyphosphate is known to be present in the mammalian brain at micromolar concentrations. Here we show that polyphosphate may act as a gliotransmitter, mediating communication between astrocytes. It is released by astrocytes in a calcium-dependent manner and signals to neighbouring astrocytes through P2Y(1) purinergic receptors, activation of(More)
AIMS Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral(More)
We have developed a fast, reliable and easily reproducible semiautomated quantitative damage grading scheme to assess axonal loss in the optic nerve after inducing ocular hypertension using a laser glaucoma model in adult rats. This targeted sampling method has been validated against complete axon counts, and compares favorably with a conventional, random(More)
Astrocytes might function as brain interoceptors capable of detecting different (chemo)sensory modalities and transmitting sensory information to the relevant neural networks controlling vital functions. For example, astrocytes that reside near the ventral surface of the brainstem (central respiratory chemosensitive area) respond to physiological decreases(More)
Current knowledge of the central nervous system distribution of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptors (beta(1)-AR) is incomplete. Here we present a general map of the beta(1)-AR distribution in the rat brain. beta(1)-AR-immunoreactivity was detected throughout the entire rat brain, but particularly dense staining was observed in the cerebellar cortex and basal(More)