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CONTEXT Regular physical activity during puberty improves bone mass acquisition. However, it is unknown whether extreme intense training has the same favorable effect on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the bone mass acquisition in a unique cohort of world-class rhythmic gymnasts. STUDY PARTICIPANTS A total of 133 adolescent girls and young women(More)
BACKGROUND Conflicting results regarding adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been reported. To evaluate adiponectin levels in PCOS, a systematic review of all studies comparing adiponectin levels in women with PCOS with healthy controls and a meta-analysis of those involving women with similar body mass index (BMI) were(More)
Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of(More)
Steroids determination in saliva offers several advantages. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, less stressful technique than blood withdrawal and reflects the circulating unbound fractions. The suitability of saliva for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol determinations has been documented in healthy subjects as well as in diseases like Congenital(More)
Optimal growth depends upon both environmental and genetic factors. Among environmental factors that could alter growth and sexual maturation are stress and intensive physical training. The influence of these factors has been documented in a variety of sports, but there is limited information on rhythmic gymnasts, who have entirely different training and(More)
INTRODUCTION Disorders possibly associated with insulin resistance (IR) are hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, irregular menstrual cycles, central obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). It is known that PCOS is related to a high risk of endometrial hyperplasia after many years of estrogen stimulation from anovulation. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To correlate the presence of renal agenesis/dysgenesis to the prevalence of KAL1 gene defects in patients with sporadic Kallmann syndrome (KS). DESIGN Prospective assessment of renal structure and DNA sequence analysis of the KAL1 gene. SETTING Outpatient clinics of the divisions of endocrinology of university hospitals. PATIENT(S) Sixteen(More)
Rhythmic gymnasts performing under conditions of high intensity are exposed to particularly high levels of psychological stress and intense physical training, factors that can contribute to the observed delay in skeletal maturation and pubertal development, and alter optimal growth. The study was conducted in the field, during the International, European,(More)
We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, China (n = 48), and Ghent, Belgium (n = 94), respectively. RG were taller than average, with a mean height SD score above(More)
Genetic potential for growth can be fully expressed only under favorable environmental conditions. Although moderate physical activity has beneficial effects on growth, excessive physical training may negatively affect it. Sports favoring restricted energy availability, in the presence of high energy expenditure, are of particular concern. In gymnastics, a(More)