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In order to observe changes owing to aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the volumes of subdivisions of the hippocampus and the number of neurons of the hippocampal formation, 18 normal brains from subjects who died of nonneurological causes and had no history of long-term illness or dementia (ten of these brains comprised the aged control group) and 13(More)
Genetic evidence suggests a role for apolipoprotein E (apoE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) amyloidogenesis. Here, amyloid-associated apoE from 32 AD patients was purified and characterized. We found that brain amyloid-associated apoE apparently exists not as free molecules but as complexes with polymers of the amyloid beta peptide (A beta). Brain A beta-apoE(More)
Enzyme activities of the serine/threonine kinase Akt were compared in mid-temporal and mid-frontal cortices from Alzheimer's disease cases and matched controls. Activities (GSK-3alpha/beta fusion protein phosphorylation by immunoprecipitated Akt) were significantly increased in temporal cortex soluble fractions from Alzheimer's disease compared with(More)
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP). FTLD-TDP is frequently familial, resulting from mutations in GRN (which encodes progranulin). We assembled an international collaboration to identify(More)
It has been recognized that molecular classifications will form the basis for neuropathological diagnostic work in the future. Consequently, in order to reach a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (HP-tau) and beta-amyloid protein in brain tissue must be unequivocal. In addition, the stepwise progression of(More)
HIV produces a chronic viral infection of the central nervous system that elicits chronic glial activation and overexpression of glial cytokines that are also implicated in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. A genetic risk factor for AD is the E4 isoform for apolipoprotein E (APOE). Here we compare the frequency of neurologic symptoms for subjects with(More)
The current pathogenic scenarios of different types of dementia are based on a number of common mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as accumulation of abnormal proteins (within or outside cells), mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis dysregulation, early synaptic disconnection and late apoptotic cell death. Ageing itself is(More)
When 22 members of the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium assessed 31 cases with alpha-synuclein (alphaS) immunoreactive (IR) pathology applying the consensus protocol described by McKeith and colleagues in 2005, the inter-observer agreement was 80%, being lowest in the limbic category (73%). When applying the staging protocol described by Braak and(More)
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) have recently been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and may be the most common genetic cause of both neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variants at TMEM106B influence risk for the most common neuropathological subtype of(More)
Strong evidence indicates oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Abeta) has been implicated in both oxidative stress mechanisms and in neuronal apoptosis. Glutaredoxin-1 (GRX1) and thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) are antioxidants that can inhibit apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1). We examined levels of GRX1 and TRX1 in(More)