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Accurate and scalable simulation has historically been a key enabling factor for systems research. We present TOSSIM, a simulator for TinyOS wireless sensor networks. By exploiting the sensor network domain and TinyOS's design, TOSSIM can capture network behavior at a high fidelity while scaling to thousands of nodes. By using a probabilistic bit error(More)
BACKGROUND There has been an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) worldwide. We report the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of 138 cases of suspected SARS during a hospital outbreak in Hong Kong. METHODS From March 11 to 25, 2003, all patients with suspected SARS after exposure to an index patient or ward were admitted to(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to characterize viral loads and factors affecting viral clearance in persons with severe influenza. METHODS This was a 1-year prospective, observational study involving consecutive adults hospitalized with influenza. Nasal and throat swabs were collected at presentation, then daily until 1 week after symptom onset.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently emerged infection from a novel coronavirus (CoV). Apart from fever and respiratory complications, gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently observed in patients with SARS but the significance remains undetermined. Herein, we describe the clinical, pathologic, and virologic features of(More)
Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection can be asymptomatic is unclear. We examined the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV among 674 healthcare workers from a hospital in which a SARS outbreak had occurred. A total of 353 (52%) experienced mild self-limiting illnesses, and 321 (48%) were asymptomatic throughout the(More)
Norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) has been the predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis since 1996. Here we show that during the winter of 2014-2015, an emergent variant of a previously rare norovirus GII.17 genotype, Kawasaki 2014, predominated in Hong Kong and outcompeted contemporary GII.4 Sydney 2012 in hospitalized cases. GII.17 cases were(More)
PURPOSE To retrospectively analyze the thin-section computed tomographic (CT) features in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the authors' institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS From March 11, 2003, to April 2, 2003, 74 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of SARS underwent CT of the thorax; all underwent thin-section CT except(More)
BACKGROUND The association between a robust or depressed antibody response and clinical severity of SARS remains unknown. OBJECTIVES To study seroconversion and the magnitude of IgG responses in a SARS cohort with different disease severities. STUDY DESIGN AND METHOD A retrospective analysis of all acute and convalescent-phase sera collected from a(More)
Antiviral therapy and vaccination are important strategies for controlling pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) but efficacy depends on the timing of administration and is often limited by supply shortage. Patients with dyspnea, tachypnea, evidence of hypoxemia, and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph should be hospitalized. Patients with severe illness or(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Evaluation of renal function by estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is very important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas are the most commonly used estimations. DESIGN, SETTING,(More)