Nelson K. B. Totah

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The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in both preparatory attention (i.e., selecting behaviorally relevant stimuli) and in detecting errors. We recorded from the rat ACC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is functionally homologous to the primate dorsolateral PFC, during an attention task. The three-choice serial reaction time task(More)
Dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the occurrence of a reward-predicting conditioned stimulus (CS) with a subsecond duration increase in post-CS firing rate. Important theories about reward-prediction error and reward expectancy have been informed by the substantial number of studies that have examined post-CS phasic VTA neuron(More)
Attention dysfunction is the hallmark of cognitive deficits associated with major psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits of schizophrenia have been attributed to reduced function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor or reduced expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid(More)
An emerging view of prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is that multiple PFC areas process information in parallel, rather than as distinct modules. Two key functions assigned to the PFC are the regulation of top-down attention and stimulus-guided action. Electrophysiology and lesion studies indicate the involvement of both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioral health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition--in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated(More)
Shifting to a new rule is a form of behavioral flexibility that is impaired in numerous psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Animal studies have revealed that this form of flexibility depends upon norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmission. Atomoxetine, a NE reuptake inhibitor, improves performance of humans in set shifting tasks. Our objective was to(More)
The brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation of LC(More)
27 The brain stem nucleus Locus Coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability 28 by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst 29 discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are 30 poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation(More)
Psychiatry faces a number of challenges, among them are the reconceptualization of symptoms and diagnoses, disease prevention, treatment development and monitoring of its effects, and the provision of individualized, precision medicine. Achieving these goals will require an increase in the biological, quantitative, and theoretical grounding of psychiatry.(More)
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