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The importin-alpha/beta heterodimer and the GTPase Ran play key roles in nuclear protein import. Importin binds the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Translocation of the resulting import ligand complex through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) requires Ran and is terminated at the nucleoplasmic side by its disassembly. The principal GTP exchange factor for(More)
Ran/TC4 is a small nuclear G protein that forms a complex with the chromatin-bound guanine nucleotide release factor RCC1 (ref. 2). Loss of RCC1 causes defects in cell cycle progression, RNA export and nuclear protein import. Some of these can be suppressed by overexpression of Ran/TC4 (ref. 1), suggesting that Ran/TC4 functions downstream of RCC1. We have(More)
We have used antibodies directed against a number of nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins to determine their mutual interactions and location within the three-dimensional structure of the NPC. A monoclonal antibody, termed QE5, recognized three NPC polypeptides, p250, NUP153, and p62 on Western blots, and labeled the nuclear envelope of several cultured cell(More)
Messenger RNAs are exported from the nucleus as large ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs). To date, proteins implicated in this process include TAP/Mex67p and RAE1/Gle2p and are distinct from the nuclear transport receptors of the beta-related, Ran-binding protein family. Mex67p is essential for mRNA export in yeast. Its vertebrate homolog TAP has been(More)
Bidirectional transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm occurs through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by a signal-mediated mechanism that is directed by targeting signals (NLSs) residing on the transported molecules or " cargoes. " Nuclear transport starts after interaction of the targeting signal with soluble cellular receptors.(More)
From a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against fractions of rat liver nuclear envelopes (NEs), we have identified an antibody, RL30, which reacts with novel nuclear pore complex (NPC) antigens that are not O-glycosylated. By immunofluorescence staining of cultured cells, RL30 reacts exclusively with the NE in a punctate pattern that largely coincides(More)
Sun1 and 2 are A-type lamin-binding proteins that, in association with nesprins, form a link between the inner nuclear membranes (INMs) and outer nuclear membranes of mammalian nuclear envelopes. Both immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy reveal that Sun1 but not Sun2 is intimately associated with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Topological(More)
Protein import into nuclei is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and by cellular factors. To structurally characterize this process, nuclear import of gold-labeled nucleoplasmin was followed by electron microscopy to identify NPC components interacting with the import ligand complex in vivo. Before translocation into the nucleus, nucleoplasmin(More)
While studying the import of the hepatitis B virus genome into the nucleus of permeabilized tissue culture cells, we found that viral capsids were imported in intact form through the nuclear pore into the nuclear basket. Import depended on phosphorylation of the capsid protein and was mediated by the cellular transport receptors importin alpha and beta.(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a supramolecular assembly of approximately 100 different proteins (nucleoporins), mediates bidirectional transport of molecules between the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. Extensive structural studies have revealed the three- dimensional (3D) architecture of Xenopus NPCs, and eight of the approximately 12 cloned and(More)