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the conditional probability of finding a particle at position x after time t with the particle located for t ϭ 0 at x ϭ 0. In Fig. 3A, we show the result of p(x, t) for ⌫ ϭ 4 at four different times, which are all greater than t c. Self-diffusion of particles causes p(x, t) to broaden with time. Despite the simplicity of the physical situation describing SF(More)
Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate(More)
There are indications that persistent contrails can lead to adverse climate change, although the complete effect on climate forcing is still uncertain. A flight trajectory optimization algorithm with fuel and contrails models, which develops alternative flight paths, provides policy makers the necessary data to make tradeoffs between persistent contrails(More)
– This paper presents a new class of subspace algorithms for system identification, in which the projection of future data onto past data is performed by a multichannel least-squares lattice filter with parameterizations and channel arrangements particularly suited to subspace system identification. Because an adaptive lattice filter provides the core(More)
This paper describes a class of strategies for reducing persistent contrail formation in the United States airspace. The primary objective is to minimize potential contrail formation regions by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude in a fuel-efficient way. The results show that the contrail formations can be reduced significantly without extra fuel(More)
— The efficiency of oceanic flights is low due to limited navigational and communication equipment, congestion and airspace restrictions. The availability of Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and other improvements provides opportunity for better strategic planning of trajectories. Transatlantic flights between US and Europe constitute one(More)
Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the(More)
Many strategies have been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. One approach is to build three-dimensional weather grids and have aircraft cruising at different flight levels to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to constraints like fuel burn, flight level capacity, and total operations of(More)
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