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Influenza virus haemagglutinin mediates infection of cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, triggered by low pH which induces a conformational change in the protein. We report studies of this change by electron microscopy, neutron scattering, sedimentation and photon correlation on X-31 (H3N2) haemagglutinin, both intact and bromelain cleaved, in(More)
The amino acid sequence of the adenovirus fibre protein reveals an approximately repeating motif of 15 residues. A diagonal comparison matrix established that these repeats extended from residue 43 to residue 400 of the 581 residue sequence. Assignment of secondary structure combined with model building showed that each 15-residue segment contained two(More)
Fab-colloidal gold labelling in conjunction with negative staining and high-resolution electron microscopy was used for targeting single protein units in regular arrays. These were bacteriophage T4 polyheads with Fab-Au2.5, and a specific antibody binding site on the haemagglutinin polypeptide of influenza virus with Fab-Au3, Fab-Au2.5, and Fab-Au1-2. For(More)
Deoxycholate-extracted rat liver gap junction was studied by high-resolution low-dose electron microscopy. Communicating channels between two adjoining cells supposedly form along the common axis of two apposed hexameric trans-membrane protein assemblies. These double hexamers are often arranged in large plaques on an ordered hexagonal net (8-9 nm lattice(More)
Complementing the rise of ethical trading initiatives there has been a parallel growth in the number of academic studies tracking their origins and evolution, and assessing the implementation and success of social auditing practices. Despite this, the consequences and responses to the implementation of codes of conduct relating to labour standards at sites(More)
High resolution (less than 2 nm) electron microscopy of biological specimens requires three exacting conditions to be met simultaneously: (a) fine specimen detail must be protected from destruction by the electron beam (low dose), (b) the electron optics must be adjusted to be capable of imaging that detail interpretably (accurate defocus), and (c) a(More)