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BACKGROUND Despite the initial encouraging outcome in developing CBT for bipolar affective disorder [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2002 (in press); Psychol. Med. 31 (2001) 459-467], very little is known about whether there are any differences in dysfunctional attitudes between unipolar and bipolar patients. Both the behavioural activation system theory [J. Pers.(More)
DNA demethylases regulate DNA methylation levels in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis encodes four DNA demethylases, DEMETER (DME), REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1), DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), and DML3. While DME is involved in maternal specific gene expression during seed development, the biological function of the remaining DNA demethylases remains unclear. We show that(More)
Viral satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are small subviral RNAs and depend on the helper virus for replication and spread. satRNAs can attenuate helper virus-induced symptoms, the mechanism of which remains unclear. Here, we show that two virus-encoded suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b and Tombusvirus P19, suppress hairpin RNA(More)
RNA silencing has become a major focus of molecular biology and biomedical research around the world. This is highlighted by a simple PubMed search for ''RNA silencing,'' which retrieves almost 9,000 articles. Interest in gene silencing-related mechanisms stemmed from the early 1990s, when this phenomenon was first noted as a surprise observation by plant(More)
We have analyzed evolution patterns over two and a half years for a system developed using eXtreme Programming. We find that the system shows a smooth pattern of growth overall, that (McCabe) code complexity is low, and that the relative amount of complexity control work (e.g. refactoring) is higher than in other systems we have studied. To interpret these(More)
BACKGROUND It is postulated that depressed patients who engaged in self-focused rumination on their depressive symptoms may experience more hopelessness, more interpersonal distress and poorer social functioning while patients who distract themselves may experience less severe hopelessness and better social functioning. METHOD One-hundred and nine(More)
The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat) has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA silencing of(More)