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Neural processes associated with two aspects of visual-spatial attention were investigated with event-related potential (ERPs): those that direct spatial attention to a given point in space and those that modulate the processing of sensory input after attention has been directed. The subjects were 6- to 9-year-old children (51 boys and 35 girls). An arrow(More)
Poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMA) is a natural biopolyester that has pharmaceutical applications and other potential uses. In this study, we examined PMA production by 56 strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans representing genetically diverse phylogenetic clades. Thirty-six strains were isolated from various locations in Iceland and Thailand. All strains(More)
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sleep loss on the diurnal rhythm of circulating leptin levels. An indwelling forearm catheter was used to sample blood at 90-min intervals for a total of 120 h, which included 88 h of sustained sleeplessness, in 10 healthy men. The diurnal amplitude of leptin was reduced during total sleep(More)
The interactions between fungi and plants can yield metabolites that are toxic in animal systems. Certain fungi are known to produce sesquiterpenoid trichothecenes, such as T-2 toxin, that are biotransformed by several mechanisms including glucosylation. The glucosylated forms have been found in grain and are of interest as potential reservoirs of T-2 toxin(More)
Schizophyllan is a homoglucan produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune, with a β-1,3-linked backbone and β-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. Schizophyllan is commercially produced for pharmaceutical and cosmetics uses. However, the unique physical properties of schizophyllan suggest that it may have biomaterials(More)
T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food(More)
To compare production of antibacterial liamocins (polyol lipids) by diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans grown on different culture media. Liamocins produced by strains of A. pullulans have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity against Streptococcus spp. Six strains of A. pullulans were characterized(More)
Chitin, a homopolymer of β1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues, is a key component of the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods. Chitin synthases transfer GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to preexisting chitin chains in reactions that are typically stimulated by free GlcNAc. The effect of GlcNAc was probed by using a yeast strain(More)
An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of β-endoglucanase with specificity towards schizophyllan. Concentrated enzyme(More)
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and(More)
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