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BACKGROUND Many double-blind clinical trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) use stimulus intensities of 2 mA despite the fact that blinding has not been formally validated under these conditions. The aim of this study was to test the assumption that sham 2 mA tDCS achieves effective blinding. METHODS A randomised double blind crossover(More)
BACKGROUND This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2010, Issue 9. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy(More)
OBJECTIVES We conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to determine whether complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with a specific inflammatory profile and whether this is dependent on the duration of the condition. METHODS Comprehensive searches of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and(More)
UNLABELLED Graded motor imagery (GMI) is becoming increasingly used in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize all evidence concerning the effects of GMI and its constituent components on chronic pain. Systematic searches were conducted in 10 electronic databases. All randomized controlled trials(More)
BACKGROUND Low back pain is a substantial health problem and has subsequently attracted a considerable amount of research. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of a variety of interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain indicate limited effectiveness for most commonly applied interventions and approaches. DISCUSSION Many clinicians challenge(More)
UNLABELLED Impaired tactile acuity in people with chronic pain conditions has been suggested to reflect altered cortical representation of the painful body part, and treatments that aim to improve tactile acuity in these conditions have shown clinical benefit. Whether abnormalities in tactile acuity are a consistent feature of chronic pain remains largely(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate impairments in sensory function in chronic non-specific low back pain patients, and the relationship between any impairment and the clinical features of the condition. DESIGN A cross-sectional case-control study. SETTING Laboratory-based study. PARTICIPANTS Nineteen chronic non-specific low back pain patients and 19 healthy(More)
We formulate some general network (and risk) management problems in a Bayesian context, and point out some of the essential features. We argue and demonstrate that, when one is interested in rare events, the Bayesian and frequentist approaches can lead to very diierent strategies: the former typically leads to strategies which are more conservative. We also(More)