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Astrocytes have many functions in the central nervous system (CNS). They support differentiation and homeostasis of neurons and influence synaptic activity. They are responsible for formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and make up the glia limitans. Here, we review their contribution to neuroimmune interactions and in particular to those induced by… (More)
The extensive polymorphism revealed in non-coding gene-regulatory sequences, particularly in the immune system, suggests that this type of genetic variation is functionally and evolutionarily far more important than has been suspected, and provides a lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Modification of cancer cells likely to reduce their immunogenicity, including loss or down-regulation of MHC molecules, is now well documented and has become the main support for the concept of immune surveillance. The evidence that these modifications, in fact, result from selection by the immune system is less clear, since the possibility that they may… (More)
Type II collagen (CII) is of immunological interest because of its repetitive structure and properties as an autoantigen. The mouse gene has recently been cloned, thus enabling T cell-defined epitopes to be identified. Multiple novel epitopes on mouse CII are here detected in the autoreactive T cell response. The major response is directed to an epitope… (More)
A survey of a select panel of 14 genetic diseases with mixed inheritance confirms that, while autosomal recessive (AR) disease genes are more numerous than autosomal dominant (AD) or X-linked (XL) ones, they make a smaller average contribution to disease. Data collected from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis studies show a similar excess of AR… (More)
The immunologists of my generation were brought up on Sir Macfarlane Burnet's clonal selection theory.' Anticipating Margaret Thatcher's view of society, we believed that all that matters in the immune system is the sum of the decisions taken by individual lympho-cytes. Engagement of its receptor by antigen suffices to drive a lymphocyte to respond. For T… (More)