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Models of discrimination based on statistical decision theory distinguish sensitivity (the ability of an observer to reflect a stimulus-response correspondence denned by the experimenter) from response bias (the tendency to favor 1 response over others). Measures of response bias have received less attention than those of sensitivity. Bias measures are(More)
In the remember-know paradigm for studying recognition memory, participants distinguish items whose presentations are episodically remembered from those that are merely familiar. A one-dimensional model postulates that remember responses are just high-confidence old judgments, but a meta-analysis of 373 experiments shows that the receiver operating(More)
Recognition memory judgments have long been assumed to depend on the contributions of two underlying processes: recollection and familiarity. We measured recollection with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) data and remember-know judgments. Under standard remember-know instructions, the two estimates of recollection diverged. When subjects were told(More)
In a recognition memory test, subjects may be asked to decide whether a test item is old or new (item recognition) or to decide among alternative sources from which it might have been drawn for study (source recognition). Confidence-rating-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for these superficially similar tasks are quite different, leading(More)
Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were estimated for single noise bursts, and for burst pairs that satisfied the conditions of the precedence effect (that is, produced fused images). In one burst-pair condition, the bursts to be discriminated differed in lead location; in the other, they differed in lag location. Sounds were presented over loudspeakers. MAAs(More)
Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a(More)
In recognition memory experiments, the tendency to identify a test item as "old" or "new" can be increased or decreased by instructions given at test. The effect of such response bias on remember-know judgments is to change "remember" as well as "old" responses. Existing models of the remember-know paradigm (based on dual-process and signal detection(More)
According to two-process accounts of recognition memory, a familiarity-based process is followed by a slower, more accurate, recall-like process. The dominant two-process account is the recall-to-reject account, in which this second process facilitates the rejection of similar foils. To evaluate the recall-to-reject account, we reanalyzed two experiments(More)