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Relative ranging between Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes is considered to be an important requirement for a number of distributed applications. This paper focuses on a two-way, time of flight (ToF) technique which achieves good accuracy in estimating the point-to-point distance between two wireless nodes. The underlying idea is to utilize a two-way time(More)
The modeling of energy components in wireless sensor network (WSN) simulation is important for obtaining realistic lifetime predictions and ensuring the faithful operation of energy-aware algorithms. The use of supercapacitors as energy stores on WSN nodes is increasing, but their behavior differs from that of batteries. This paper proposes a model for a(More)
—Energy-aware sensor nodes are usually tightly energy-constrained, execute energy-efficient algorithms, have the ability to interrogate and control the devices used for storing and consuming energy, and often feature one or more sources of energy harvesting. Due to the cost, time and expertise required to deploy a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), simulation(More)
EGF receptor signalling plays diverse inductive roles during development. To achieve this, its activity must be carefully regulated in a variety of ways to control the time, pattern, intensity and duration of signalling. We show that the cell surface protein Echinoid is required to moderate Egfr signalling during R8 photoreceptor selection by the proneural(More)
We report the synthesis of highly crystallographically textured films of stoichiometric bismuth telluride (Bi(2)Te(3)) in the presence of a surfactant, sodium lignosulfonate (SL), that resulted in the improved alignment of films in the (110) plane and offered good control over the morphology and roughness of the electrodeposited films. SL concentrations in(More)
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may(More)
Wireless sensor networks are continuing to receive considerable research interest. The energy constraint inherent in the small battery powered nodes presents a considerable problem, and much effort is being put into reducing the power consumption. In this paper, we introduce IDEALS (Information manageD Energy Aware aLgorithm for Sensor networks), which aims(More)
Inertial energy harvesting is an emerging technology that can power electronic devices using energy scavenged from the motion of the human body. Owing to the relatively low frequencies associated with body motion (<3 Hz), the generated electrical power is typically in the range of a few μW; hence transduction must be optimized. Previous studies have(More)
Energy efficiency is a key issue for wireless sensor networks, since sensors nodes can often be powered by non-renewable batteries. In this paper, we examine four MAC protocols in terms of energy consumption, throughput and energy efficiency. A forest fire detection application has been simulated using the well-known ns-2 in order to fully evaluate these(More)
— In this paper a generic intelligent sensor software architecture is described which builds upon the basic requirements of related industry standards (IEEE 1451 and SEVA BS-7986). It incorporates specific functionalities such as real-time fault detection, drift compensation, adaptation to environmental changes and autonomous reconfiguration. The modular(More)