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Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) involves the aggregation of beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) into amyloid fibrils. Using Congo red and thioflavin-T binding, electron microscopy, and X-ray fiber diffraction, we have determined conditions under which recombinant monomeric beta(2)m spontaneously associates to form fibrils in vitro. Fibrillogenesis is(More)
Myosin V is a processive actin-based motor protein that takes multiple 36-nm steps to deliver intracellular cargo to its destination. In the laser trap, applied load slows myosin V heavy meromyosin stepping and increases the probability of backsteps. In the presence of 40 mm phosphate (P(i)), both forward and backward steps become less load-dependent. From(More)
Amyloid fibrils formed by incubation of recombinant wild-type human beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) ab initio in vitro at low pH and high ionic strength are short and highly curved. By contrast, fibrils extracted from patients suffering from haemodialysis-related amyloidosis and those formed by seeding growth of the wild-type protein in vitro with fibrils(More)
The ATPase cycle of GroE chaperonins has been examined by transient kinetics to dissect partial reactions in complexes where GroEL is asymmetrically loaded with nucleotides. The occupation of one heptameric ring by ADP does not inhibit the loading of the other with ATP nor does it prevent the consequent structural rearrangement to the "open" state. However,(More)
Beta(2)-Microglobulin (beta(2)m) is one of over 20 proteins known to be involved in human amyloid disease. Peptides equivalent to each of the seven beta-strands of the native protein, together with an eighth peptide (corresponding to the most stable region in the amyloid precursor conformation formed at pH 3.6, that includes residues in the native strand E(More)
The kinetics of spontaneous assembly of amyloid fibrils of wild-type beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) in vitro, under acid conditions (pH 2.5) and low ionic strength, has been followed using thioflavin-T (ThT) binding. In parallel experiments, the morphology of the different fibrillar species present at different time-points during the growth process were(More)
Single-molecule approaches permit an unrivalled view of how complex systems operate and have recently been used to understand DNA-protein interactions. These tools have enabled advances in a particularly challenging problem, the search for damaged sites on DNA. DNA repair proteins are present at the level of just a few hundred copies in bacterial cells to(More)
How DNA repair proteins sort through a genome for damage is one of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. To address this problem, we uniquely labeled bacterial UvrA and UvrB with differently colored quantum dots and visualized how they interacted with DNA individually or together using oblique-angle fluorescence microscopy. UvrA was observed(More)
Each of the heads of the motor protein myosin II is capable of supporting motion. A previous report showed that double-headed myosin generates twice the displacement of single-headed myosin (Tyska, M.J., D.E. Dupuis, W.H. Guilford, J.B. Patlak, G.S. Waller, K.M. Trybus, D.M. Warshaw, and S. Lowey. 1999. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96:4402-4407). To(More)
Within the base excision repair (BER) pathway, the DNA N-glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of oxidative base damages. Endonuclease III (Nth), formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of two glycosylase families: the helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) superfamily and the Fpg/Nei family. The(More)