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Streptavidin and avidin are used ubiquitously because of the remarkable affinity of their biotin binding, but they are tetramers, which disrupts many of their applications. Making either protein monomeric reduces affinity by at least 10(4)-fold because part of the binding site comes from a neighboring subunit. Here we engineered a streptavidin tetramer with(More)
We developed a platform using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for analyses of histone H3 that allows comprehensive characterization of 'histone codes' at the molecular level. We identified over 150 differentially modified forms of histone H3.2 in asynchronously grown and butyrate-treated HeLa cells,(More)
Understanding how a small brain region, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), can synchronize the body's circadian rhythms is an ongoing research area. This important time-keeping system requires a complex suite of peptide hormones and transmitters that remain incompletely characterized. Here, capillary liquid chromatography and FTMS have been coupled with(More)
ProSight PTM 2.0 (http://prosightptm2.scs.uiuc.edu) is the next generation of the ProSight PTM web-based system for the identification and characterization of proteins using top down tandem mass spectrometry. It introduces an entirely new data-driven interface, integrated Sequence Gazer for protein characterization, support for fixed modifications, terminal(More)
The lantibiotic lacticin 481 is synthesized on ribosomes as a prepeptide (LctA) and posttranslationally modified to its mature form. These modifications include dehydration of serines and threonines, followed by intramolecular addition of cysteines to the unsaturated amino acids, which generates cyclic thioethers. This process breaks eight chemical bonds(More)
Histone H1 phosphorylation affects chromatin condensation and function, but little is known about how specific phosphorylations impact the function of H1 variants in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that specific sites in H1.2 and H1.4 of human cells are phosphorylated only during mitosis or during both mitosis and interphase. Antisera generated to(More)
Many natural products with antibiotic, anticancer and antifungal properties are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). Although genome sequencing has revealed the diversity of these enzymes, identifying new products and their biosynthetic pathways remains challenging. By taking advantage of the size of these(More)
Top-down mass spectrometry is an emerging technology which strives to preserve the post-translationally modified forms of proteins present in vivo by measuring them intact, rather than measuring peptides produced from them by proteolysis. The top-down technology is beginning to capture the interest of biologists and mass spectrometrists alike, with a main(More)
A full description of the human proteome relies on the challenging task of detecting mature and changing forms of protein molecules in the body. Large-scale proteome analysis has routinely involved digesting intact proteins followed by inferred protein identification using mass spectrometry. This 'bottom-up' process affords a high number of identifications(More)