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A Histology Activity Index has been developed which generates a numerical score for liver biopsy specimens obtained from patients with asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Biopsies are graded in four categories: periportal necrosis, intralobular necrosis, portal inflammation, and fibrosis. Under code, three pathologists and three hepatologists evaluated(More)
Previously, we demonstrated JNK plays a central role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (Gunawan, B. K., Liu, Z. X., Han, D., Hanawa, N., Gaarde, W. A., and Kaplowitz, N. (2006) Gastroenterology 131, 165-178). In this study, we examine the mechanism involved in activating JNK and explore the downstream targets of JNK important in promoting(More)
This report is a summary of a symposium on the role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine, and folate in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which was organized by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcohol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in rats and humans. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to the activation of ER-dependent apoptosis or up-regulation of lipid synthesis. This novel ER stress mechanism of alcoholic liver injury was studied in the model of intragastric(More)
The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the most frequent cause of post-marketing warnings and withdrawals. This review examines the clinical signatures of this problem, signals predictive of its occurrence (particularly of more frequent, reversible, low-grade injury) and the role(More)
Glutathione (GSH) fulfills several essential functions: Detoxification of free radicals and toxic oxygen radicals, thiol-disulfide exchange and storage and transfer of cysteine. GSH is present in all mammalian cells, but may be especially important for organs with intense exposure to exogenous toxins such as the liver, kidney, lung and intestine. Within the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory mediators released by nonparenchymal inflammatory cells in the liver have been implicated in the progression of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Among hepatic nonparenchymal inflammatory cells, we examined the role of the abundant natural killer (NK) cells and NK cells with T-cell receptors (NKT cells) in APAP-induced(More)
Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts of molecular oxygen consumption in the electron transport chain. Most cellular oxygen is consumed in the cytochrome-c oxidase complex of the respiratory chain, which does not generate reactive species. The ubiquinone pool of complex III of respiration is the major site within the respiratory(More)
Synthesized in the cytosol of cells, a fraction of cytosolic glutathione (GSH) is then transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it reaches a high concentration and plays a critical role in defending mitochondria against oxidants and electrophiles. Evidence mainly from kidney and liver mitochondria indicated that the dicarboxylate and the(More)
Mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen intermediates because they are the major consumers of molecular oxygen in cells. Respiration is associated with toxicity, which is related to the activation of oxygen to reactive intermediates. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the maintenance of(More)