Neil Kaplowitz

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A Histology Activity Index has been developed which generates a numerical score for liver biopsy specimens obtained from patients with asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Biopsies are graded in four categories: periportal necrosis, intralobular necrosis, portal inflammation, and fibrosis. Under code, three pathologists and three hepatologists evaluated(More)
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most frequent reason cited for the withdrawal of approved drugs from the market and accounts for up to 15% of the cases of acute liver failure. Investigators around the globe have begun to identify and study patients with DILI; several large registries and tissue banks are being established. In order to gain the(More)
The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the most frequent cause of post-marketing warnings and withdrawals. This review examines the clinical signatures of this problem, signals predictive of its occurrence (particularly of more frequent, reversible, low-grade injury) and the role(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS In searching for effects of acetaminophen (APAP) on hepatocytes downstream of its metabolism that may participate in hepatotoxicity, we examined the role of stress kinases. METHODS Mouse hepatocytes and C57BL/6 mice were administered a toxic dose of APAP with or without SP600125, a chemical c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. JNK(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcohol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in rats and humans. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to the activation of ER-dependent apoptosis or up-regulation of lipid synthesis. This novel ER stress mechanism of alcoholic liver injury was studied in the model of intragastric(More)
Previously, we demonstrated JNK plays a central role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (Gunawan, B. K., Liu, Z. X., Han, D., Hanawa, N., Gaarde, W. A., and Kaplowitz, N. (2006) Gastroenterology 131, 165-178). In this study, we examine the mechanism involved in activating JNK and explore the downstream targets of JNK important in promoting(More)
CONTEXT During a clinical trial of a novel hydrocodone/acetaminophen combination, a high incidence of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations was observed. OBJECTIVE To characterize the incidence and magnitude of ALT elevations in healthy participants receiving 4 g of acetaminophen daily, either alone or in combination with selected opioids, as(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory mediators released by nonparenchymal inflammatory cells in the liver have been implicated in the progression of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Among hepatic nonparenchymal inflammatory cells, we examined the role of the abundant natural killer (NK) cells and NK cells with T-cell receptors (NKT cells) in APAP-induced(More)
The microcystins (Mcyst) are cyclic peptide hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacteria. They are chemically very stable and represent a public health threat when they occur in water bodies used for human consumption. Mice injected ip with Mcyst (LD50 50-100 micrograms/kg) accumulate Mcyst in the liver and die within 2-4 hr with massive intrahepatic hemorrhage.(More)
Glutathione (GSH) fulfills several essential functions: Detoxification of free radicals and toxic oxygen radicals, thiol-disulfide exchange and storage and transfer of cysteine. GSH is present in all mammalian cells, but may be especially important for organs with intense exposure to exogenous toxins such as the liver, kidney, lung and intestine. Within the(More)