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Many aspects of CSF dynamics are poorly understood due to the difficulties involved in quantification and visualization. In particular, there is debate surrounding the route of CSF drainage. Our aim was to quantify CSF flow, volume, and drainage route dynamics in vivo in young and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) using a novel contrast-enhanced(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiorespiratory fitness is low after stroke. Improving fitness has the potential to improve function and reduce secondary cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE . This review with meta-analysis aims to identify characteristics and determine the effectiveness of interventions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness after stroke. METHODS A systematic(More)
Improving models of human stroke by the use of aged animals has been advocated; however the commonly used rat middle cerebral artery thread-occlusion model has produced suboptimal stroke induction and excess mortality in aged rats. We report the development of a modified method for silicone-coating the tip of occluding threads which produces a malleable(More)
The hypoxia tracer fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) and its tritiated counterpart ([(3)H]FMISO) have been used as markers of potentially salvageable brain (ischemic penumbra) after stroke. In experimental models, the dynamics and half-life of [3H]FMISO allow concurrent histology after 24 h. Our aim was to further validate these techniques, by(More)
Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid synthesized from progesterone in brain. It increases inhibition through modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptor. Both agents are putative neuroprotectants after ischemic stroke. We sought to confirm their effectiveness in a hypertensive rat stroke model, with intra- and post-operative temperature(More)
OBJECTIVE An enriched environment (EE) refers to conditions that facilitate or enhance sensory, cognitive, motor, and social stimulation relative to standard (laboratory) conditions. Despite numerous published studies investigating this concept in animal stroke models, there is still debate around its efficacy. The authors performed a systematic review and(More)
BACKGROUND Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is used to counteract learned nonuse observed following stroke in humans and has been shown to improve function. Variations of CIMT used in animal models of stroke have the potential to inform and improve our understanding of this intervention. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of studies(More)
The use of perfusion imaging to guide selection of patients for stroke thrombolysis remains controversial because of lack of supportive phase three clinical trial evidence. We aimed to measure the outcomes for patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) at a comprehensive stroke care facility where perfusion computed(More)
Different brain regions exhibit differing sensitivities to ischemia/excitotoxicity. Whether these differences are due to perfusion or intrinsic factors has not been established. Herein, we found no apparent association between sensitivity to ischemia/excitotoxicity and the level of expression or basal phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein(More)
BACKGROUND Regular exercise reduces the risk of a first-ever stroke and is associated with smaller infarcts. Although evidence has suggested that therapeutic exercise following stroke is beneficial, we do not yet know whether exercise reduces stroke severity and improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying any benefit remain unclear. OBJECTIVE(More)