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We assessed FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-[dibutylamino]styryl)pyridinium dibromide] as a fluorescent endocytosis marker in intact, walled plant cells. At 4 degrees C, FM1-43 stained the plasma membrane, and after 30 to 120 min of incubation at 26 degrees C, FM1-43 labeled cytoplasmic vesicles and then the vacuole. Fluorimetric quantitation(More)
Antibodies represent a large proportion of therapeutic drugs currently in development. In most cases, they are produced in mammalian cell lines or transgenic animals because these have been shown to fold and assemble the proteins correctly and generate authentic glycosylation patterns. However, such expression systems are expensive, difficult to scale up(More)
Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5'-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual(More)
Molecular farming is the production of pharmaceutically important and commercially valuable proteins in plants. Its purpose is to provide a safe and inexpensive means for the mass production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins. Complex mammalian proteins can be produced in transformed plants or transformed plant suspension cells. Plants are suitable for(More)
Molecular farming of pharmaceuticals in plants has the potential to provide almost unlimited amounts of recombinant proteins for use in disease diagnosis and therapy. Transgenic plants are attracting interest as bioreactors for the inexpensive production of large amounts of safe, functional, recombinant macromolecules, such as blood substitutes, vaccines(More)
'Molecular farming' is the production of valuable recombinant proteins in transgenic organisms on an agricultural scale. While plants have long been used as a source of medicinal compounds, molecular farming represents a novel source of molecular medicines, such as plasma proteins, enzymes, growth factors, vaccines and recombinant antibodies, whose medical(More)
Differentiation of human placental villous trophoblast includes syncytial fusion of cytotrophoblast forming syncytiotrophoblast. Early stages of the apoptosis cascade were described to be involved in this differentiation process. We investigated the role of the initiator caspase 8 in syncytial fusion in vitro, cultivating placental villous explants with or(More)
Recent genome-wide RNAi screens have identified >842 human genes that affect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cycle. The list of genes implicated in infection differs between screens, and there is minimal overlap. A reason for this variance is the interdependence of HIV infection and host cell function, producing a multitude of indirect or pleiotropic(More)
This review article focuses on the use of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as a recombinant protein-expression system. P. pastoris is a useful system for the expression of milligram-to-gram quantities of a protein, which can be scaled up to fermentation to meet greater demands. Compared with mammalian cells, Pichia do not require a complex growth(More)
A fluorescence assay of in vivo endosome fusion was developed and applied to define the kinetics of endosome fusion in baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts. The assay is based on an approximately 10-fold enhancement of the green fluorescence of BODIPY-avidin upon biotin binding. The BODIPY-avidin fluorescence enhancement occurred in < 25 ms, was(More)