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BACKGROUND Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens have evolved strategies that support invasion and persistence within host target cells. In some cases the underlying mechanisms involve the export of virulence factors into the host cell cytosol. Previous work from our laboratory identified one such candidate leishmania effector, namely elongation(More)
Herein, we review evidence supporting a role for Leishmania exosomes during early infection. We suggest a model in which Leishmania secreted microvesicles released into the extracellular milieu deliver effector cargo to host target cells. This cargo mediates immunosuppression and functionally primes host cells for Leishmania invasion. Leishmania ssp.(More)
1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D(3)) promotes the maturation of myeloid cells and surface expressions of CD14 and CD11b, markers of cell differentiation in response to D(3). To examine how these responses are regulated, THP-1 cells were grown in serum-free medium and incubated with D(3). This was associated with rapid and transient increases in(More)
Leishmania use exosomes to communicate with their mammalian hosts and these secreted vesicles appear to contribute to pathogenesis by delivering protein virulence factors to macrophages. In other eukaryotes, exosomes were found to carry RNA cargo, such as mRNAs and small non-coding RNAs, capable of altering recipient cell phenotype. Whether leishmania(More)
Immature cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series differentiate in response to calcitriol. This is accompanied by increased expression of both CD11b and CD14 and has been shown to be phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent. The events downstream of PI3K that regulate mononuclear phagocyte gene expression, however, remain to be fully understood. In(More)
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, also known as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol, regulates the differentiation and functional properties of mononuclear phagocytes. Many of these effects involve nongenomic signaling pathways, which are not fully understood. Activation of CD14 expression, a monocyte differentiation marker and coreceptor with TLR-2(More)
Of the various phosphatidylinositol 3- kinases (PI3Ks), only the class III enzyme Vps34 has been shown to regulate phagosome maturation. During studies of phagosome maturation in THP-1 cells deficient in class IA PI3K p110α, we discovered that this PI3K isoform is required for vacuole maturation to progress beyond acquisition of Rab7 leading to delivery of(More)
Leishmania are unicellular eukaryotes responsible for leishmaniasis in humans. Like other trypanosomatids, leishmania regulate protein coding gene expression almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level with the help of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Due to the presence of polycystronic transcription units, leishmania do not regulate RNA polymerase(More)
Protozoa of the genus Leishmania infect macrophages in their mammalian hosts causing a spectrum of diseases known as the leishmaniases. The search for leishmania effectors that support macrophage infection is a focus of significant interest. One such candidate is leishmania chaperonin 10 (CPN10) which is secreted in exosomes and may have immunosuppressive(More)