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We investigated the properties of leishmania exosomes with respect to influencing innate and adaptive immune responses. Exosomes from Leishmania donovani modulated human monocyte cytokine responses to IFN-γ in a bimodal fashion by promoting IL-10 production and inhibiting that of TNF-α. Moreover, these vesicles were inhibitory with respect to cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens have evolved strategies that support invasion and persistence within host target cells. In some cases the underlying mechanisms involve the export of virulence factors into the host cell cytosol. Previous work from our laboratory identified one such candidate leishmania effector, namely elongation(More)
Herein, we review evidence supporting a role for Leishmania exosomes during early infection. We suggest a model in which Leishmania secreted microvesicles released into the extracellular milieu deliver effector cargo to host target cells. This cargo mediates immunosuppression and functionally primes host cells for Leishmania invasion. Leishmania ssp.(More)
1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D(3)) promotes the maturation of myeloid cells and surface expressions of CD14 and CD11b, markers of cell differentiation in response to D(3). To examine how these responses are regulated, THP-1 cells were grown in serum-free medium and incubated with D(3). This was associated with rapid and transient increases in(More)
MHC class II expression was examined in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IFN-gamma increased the surface expression of class II molecules in THP-1 cells and this was markedly reduced in cells infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite this effect, steady state levels of HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DRbeta, and invariant (Ii) chains were equivalent in(More)
The glycosylphosphatidyl anchored molecule CD14 to the monocyte membrane plays a prominent role in innate immunity, and the paradigms for CD14 selective signaling are beginning to be elucidated. In this study, transfected human monocytic cell line THP-1 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblastic cells were used to examine phagocytosis of Mycobacterium(More)
Leishmania disease expression has been linked to IL-10. In this study, we investigated the regulation of IL-10 production by macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani. Infection of either murine or human macrophages brought about selective phosphorylation of Akt-2 in a PI3K-dependent manner. These events were linked to phosphorylation and inactivation(More)
Leishmania use exosomes to communicate with their mammalian hosts and these secreted vesicles appear to contribute to pathogenesis by delivering protein virulence factors to macrophages. In other eukaryotes, exosomes were found to carry RNA cargo, such as mRNAs and small non-coding RNAs, capable of altering recipient cell phenotype. Whether leishmania(More)
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, also known as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol, regulates the differentiation and functional properties of mononuclear phagocytes. Many of these effects involve nongenomic signaling pathways, which are not fully understood. Activation of CD14 expression, a monocyte differentiation marker and coreceptor with TLR-2(More)