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Specialized secretion systems are used by numerous bacterial pathogens to export virulence factors into host target cells. Leishmania and other eukaryotic intracellular pathogens also deliver effector proteins into host cells; however, the mechanisms involved have remained elusive. In this report, we identify exosome-based secretion as a general mechanism(More)
We investigated the properties of leishmania exosomes with respect to influencing innate and adaptive immune responses. Exosomes from Leishmania donovani modulated human monocyte cytokine responses to IFN-γ in a bimodal fashion by promoting IL-10 production and inhibiting that of TNF-α. Moreover, these vesicles were inhibitory with respect to cytokine(More)
Herein, we review evidence supporting a role for Leishmania exosomes during early infection. We suggest a model in which Leishmania secreted microvesicles released into the extracellular milieu deliver effector cargo to host target cells. This cargo mediates immunosuppression and functionally primes host cells for Leishmania invasion. Leishmania ssp.(More)
The histopathologic changes in liver, spleen, and bone marrow of BALB/c mice infected for 6 months with Leishmania donovani are described. Granulomas were the most important histologic lesions found; and the dynamics of their formation, collagen deposition, and resolution in the liver were studied. The number of hepatic granulomas increased until the eighth(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens have evolved strategies that support invasion and persistence within host target cells. In some cases the underlying mechanisms involve the export of virulence factors into the host cell cytosol. Previous work from our laboratory identified one such candidate leishmania effector, namely elongation(More)
The human leishmaniasis are persistent infections of macrophages caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The chronic nature of these infections is in part related to induction of macrophage deactivation, linked to activation of the Src homology 2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) in infected cells. To investigate the mechanism of SHP-1(More)
Stimulus-response coupling through protein kinase C (PKC) was shown to be defective in mononuclear phagocytes (M phi) infected with Leishmania donovani. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced oxidative burst activity and protein phosphorylation were markedly attenuated in infected M phi. These results were not explained either by quantitative(More)
ADP-ribosylating enzymes, such as cholera and diphtheria toxins, are key virulence factors for a variety of extracellular bacterial pathogens but have not been implicated previously during intracellular pathogenesis. Salmonella strains are capable of invading epithelial cells and localizing in macrophages during infection. The spvB virulence gene of(More)
In the present study, we examined the modulation of MHC class II and class I gene products on BALB/c macrophages infected with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani. Our findings indicated that this organism suppressed macrophage expression of both classes of MHC antigens. These effects varied somewhat, depending on whether cells were in(More)
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a putative virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that inhibits monocyte functions, and this may involve antagonism of cell signaling pathways. The effects of LAM on protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 were examined. LAM promoted tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple cell(More)