Neil D. Lawrence

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Summarising a high dimensional data set with a low dimensional embedding is a standard approach for exploring its structure. In this paper we provide an overview of some existing techniques for discovering such embeddings. We then introduce a novel probabilistic interpretation of principal component analysis (PCA) that we term dual probabilistic PCA(More)
In this paper we introduce a new underlying probabilistic model for principal component analysis (PCA). Our formulation interprets PCA as a particular Gaussian process prior on a mapping from a latent space to the observed data-space. We show that if the prior’s covariance function constrains the mappings to be linear the model is equivalent to PCA, we then(More)
We present a framework for sparse Gaussian process (GP) methods which uses forward selection with criteria based on informationtheoretic principles, previously suggested for active learning. Our goal is not only to learn d–sparse predictors (which can be evaluated in O(d) rather than O(n), d n, n the number of training points), but also to perform training(More)
We introduce stochastic variational inference for Gaussian process models. This enables the application of Gaussian process (GP) models to data sets containing millions of data points. We show how GPs can be variationally decomposed to depend on a set of globally relevant inducing variables which factorize the model in the necessary manner to perform(More)
We present a method for the sparse greedy approximation of Bayesian Gaussian process regression, featuring a novel heuristic for very fast forward selection. Our method is essentially as fast as an equivalent one which selects the “support” patterns at random, yet it can outperform random selection on hard curve fitting tasks. More importantly, it leads to(More)
We introduce a variational inference framework for training the Gaussian process latent variable model and thus performing Bayesian nonlinear dimensionality reduction. This method allows us to variationally integrate out the input variables of the Gaussian process and compute a lower bound on the exact marginal likelihood of the nonlinear latent variable(More)
Kernel methods are among the most popular techniques in machine learning. From a frequentist/discriminative perspective they play a central role in regularization theory as they provide a natural choice for the hypotheses space and the regularization functional through the notion of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. From a Bayesian/generative perspective(More)
A popular approach to collaborative filtering is matrix factorization. In this paper we develop a non-linear probabilistic matrix factorization using Gaussian process latent variable models. We use stochastic gradient descent (SGD) to optimize the model. SGD allows us to apply Gaussian processes to data sets with millions of observations without approximate(More)
WiFi localization, the task of determining the physical location of a mobile device from wireless signal strengths, has been shown to be an accurate method of indoor and outdoor localization and a powerful building block for location-aware applications. However, most localization techniques require a training set of signal strength readings labeled against(More)
The Gaussian process latent variable model (GP-LVM) is a generative approach to nonlinear low dimensional embedding, that provides a smooth probabilistic mapping from latent to data space. It is also a non-linear generalization of probabilistic PCA (PPCA) (Tipping & Bishop, 1999). While most approaches to non-linear dimensionality methods focus on(More)