Neil Crickmore

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During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism's pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to(More)
The crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been extensively studied because of their pesticidal properties and their high natural levels of production. The increasingly rapid characterization of new crystal protein genes, triggered by an effort to discover proteins with new pesticidal properties, has resulted in a variety of sequences and(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium of great agronomic and scientific interest. Together the subspecies of this bacterium colonize and kill a large variety of host insects and even nematodes, but each strain does so with a high degree of specificity. This is mainly determined by the arsenal of crystal proteins that the bacterium produces during(More)
Gram-positive spore-forming entomopathogenic bacteria can utilize a large variety of protein toxins to help them invade, infect, and finally kill their hosts, through their action on the insect midgut. These toxins belong to a number of homology groups containing a diversity of protein structures and modes of action. In many cases, the toxins consist of(More)
A 120 kDa glycoprotein in the larval midgut membrane of the lepidopteran Manduca sexta, previously identified as a putative receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis CrylA(c) delta-endotoxin, has been purified by a combination of protoxin affinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. In immunoblotting experiments, the purified glycoprotein has the(More)
BACKGROUND Spodoptera litura (F.) causes enormous losses in many economically important crops. The genetics of insecticide resistance has been extensively studied in several insect pests, but there is a lack of information on S. litura. Therefore, the genetics and mechanisms of the resistance of S. litura to deltamethrin were investigated. RESULTS(More)
The Bacillus thuringiensis cryIIA delta-endotoxin gene is found as the third-gene in a three-gene operon, with a sporulation-dependent promoter lying upstream of the first gene, orf1. We show here that the polypeptide product of the middle gene (orf2) is required for efficient expression of the toxin gene. In the absence of a functional ORF2 polypeptide the(More)
Despite the prominent and worldwide use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins in agriculture, knowledge of the mechanism by which they kill pests remains incomplete. Here we report genetic mapping of a membrane transporter (ABCC2) to a locus controlling Bt Cry1Ac toxin resistance in two lepidopterans, implying that this protein plays a critical(More)
Transgenic crop pyramids producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill the same insect pest have been widely used to delay evolution of pest resistance. To assess the potential of pyramids to achieve this goal, we analyze data from 38 studies that report effects of ten Bt toxins used in transgenic crops against 15 insect pests. We find(More)
When the gene for the mosquitocidal protein CryIVA was expressed in two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cured of their resident delta-endotoxin genes, the protein accumulated as large inclusions. The inclusions produced in the Bt subsp. kurstaki recipient strain were twice as soluble at alkaline pH as the inclusions produced in Bt subsp. israelensis.(More)