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BACKGROUND High blood pressure and stroke are associated with increased risks of dementia and cognitive impairment. This study aimed to determine whether blood pressure lowering would reduce the risks of dementia and cognitive decline among individuals with cerebrovascular disease. METHODS The Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study(More)
AIMS Quantification of retinal vascular change is difficult and manual measurements of vascular features are slow and subject to observer bias. These problems may be overcome using computer algorithms. Three automated methods and a manual method for measurement of arteriolar diameters from digitised red-free retinal photographs were compared. METHODS 60(More)
Spironolactone is recommended as fourth-line therapy for essential hypertension despite few supporting data for this indication. We evaluated the effect among 1411 participants in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm who received spironolactone mainly as a fourth-line antihypertensive agent for uncontrolled blood(More)
BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) level is a major determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Several guidelines recommend lower BP goals and specific drug classes for these patients. The overviews reported herein were performed to formally compare the effects on cardiovascular events and death of different(More)
Observational studies conducted among Asian populations suggest that the risk of pneumonia is substantially reduced among users of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors but not other blood pressure-lowering agents. We conducted analyses of the effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on pneumonia in 6,105 patients with a history of stroke or transient(More)
BACKGROUND This programme of overviews of randomised trials was established to investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs on mortality and major cardiovascular morbidity in several populations of patients. We did separate overviews of trials comparing active(More)
The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene might have consequences for the risks of vascular diseases. We examined the ACE genotype and the effects of a perindopril-based blood pressure-lowering regimen on macrovascular events, dementia, and cognitive decline among hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients with(More)
Induction of transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 long terminal repeat by the RelA (p65) NF-kappaB subunit has been shown to be dependent upon an interaction with the zinc finger DNA-binding domain of Sp1. It was unknown, however, whether NF-kappaB could also interact with other zinc finger-containing transcription factors. In this study we(More)
A semi-automatic method to measure and quantify geometrical and topological properties of continuous vascular trees in clinical fundus images is described. Measurements are made from binary images obtained with a previously described segmentation process. The skeletons of the segmented trees are produced by thinning,ff branch and crossing points are(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) showed that blood pressure lowering reduced stroke risk in patients with a history of cerebrovascular events. Here, we report the consistency of treatment effects across different stroke subtypes and among major clinical subgroups. METHODS PROGRESS was a(More)