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The possibility that lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is related to alterations in diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was investigated in normal volunteers during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamping in which plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels were increased by a lipid/heparin infusion. In keeping with previous reports,(More)
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. They mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 2 (refs 1, 2). Mice lacking both(More)
gACRP30, the globular subunit of adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa (ACRP30), improves insulin sensitivity and increases fatty acid oxidation. The mechanism by which gACRP30 exerts these effects is unknown. Here, we examined if gACRP30 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that has been shown to increase muscle fatty acid(More)
An increasing body of evidence has linked AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) to the regulation of energy balance. Thus, factors that activate AMPK and decrease the concentration of malonyl CoA in peripheral tissues, such as exercise, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the adipocyte and other cells. The data reviewed here(More)
Malonyl-CoA is an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, the enzyme that controls the transfer of long-chain fatty acyl (LCFA)-CoAs into the mitochondria where they are oxidized. In rat skeletal muscle, the formation of malonyl-CoA is regulated acutely (in minutes) by changes in the activity of the beta-isoform of acetyl-CoA(More)
SIRT1, a histone/protein deacetylase, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are key enzymes responsible for longevity and energy homeostasis. We examined whether a mechanistic connection exists between these molecules that involves the major AMPK kinase LKB1. Initial studies demonstrated that LKB1 is acetylated in cultured (HEK293T) cells, mouse white(More)
UNLABELLED Changes in the concentration of malonyl-CoA in many tissues have been related to alterations in the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in its formation. In contrast, little is known about the physiological role of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), an enzyme responsible for malonyl-CoA catabolism. In this study, we(More)
We examined in HepG2 cells whether glucose-induced changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity could be mediated by SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylase that has been linked to the increase in longevity caused by caloric restriction. Incubation with 25 vs. 5mM glucose for 6h concurrently diminished the phosphorylation of AMPK(More)
The fuel-sensing enzyme 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a major role in the regulation of cellular lipid and protein metabolism in response to stimuli such as exercise, changes in fuel availability and the adipocyte-derived hormones leptin and adiponectin. Recent studies indicate that abnormalities in cellular lipid metabolism are involved in the(More)
The concentration of malonyl-CoA, a negative regulator of fatty acid oxidation, diminishes acutely in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine how this occurs, the activity and properties of acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACC-beta), the skeletal muscle isozyme that catalyzes malonyl-CoA formation, were examined in rat gastrocnemius-soleus muscles at rest and(More)