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Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. They mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 2 (refs 1, 2). Mice lacking both(More)
OBJECTIVE Branched-chain amino acids, such as leucine and glucose, stimulate protein synthesis and increase the phosphorylation and activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream target p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We examined in skeletal muscle whether the effects of leucine and glucose on these parameters and on insulin resistance are(More)
The aging process is perceived as resulting from a combination of intrinsic factors such as changes in intracellular signaling and extrinsic factors, most notably environmental stressors. In skin, the relationship between intrinsic changes and keratinocyte function is not clearly understood. Previously, we found that increasing the activity of AMP-activated(More)
Acute increases in the concentration of malonyl-CoA play a pivotal role in mediating the decrease in fatty acid oxidation that occurs in many tissues during refeeding after a fast. In this study, we assess whether such increases in malonyl-CoA in liver could be mediated by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD), as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In(More)
by the American Physiological Society. All rights reserved; however, the abstract appearing at the beginning of each article may be reproduced in any form, or translated, without specific permission and without an additional credit line. Printed in the United States of America. The American Journal of Physiology .= Endocrinology, Metabolism and(More)
Exercise improves insulin sensitivity. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in muscle metabolism during exercise, we investigated the effects of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on insulin action in insulin-resistant high-fat-fed (HF) rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vivo and in vitro; however, the mechanism by which it does so is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined this question in skeletal muscle using an incubated rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle preparation as a tool. RESULTS AMPK activation by IL-6(More)
Intracellular mechanisms regulating fat oxidation were investigated in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Eight young, healthy, moderately trained men performed bicycle exercise (60 min, 65% peak O2 consumption) on two occasions, where they ingested either 1) a high-carbohydrate diet (H-CHO) or 2) a low-carbohydrate diet (L-CHO) before exercise to alter(More)
Previous studies have shown that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), a cell-permeable activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, increases the rate of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of fed rats. The present study investigated the mechanism by which this occurs and, in particular, whether changes in the activity of malonyl-CoA(More)
It is generally accepted that endothelial cells generate most of their ATP by anaerobic glycolysis and that very little ATP is derived from the oxidation of fatty acids or glucose. Previously, we have reported that, in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by the cell-permeable activator(More)